QUESTIONS ARISING FROM 107th. MEETING – 20/12/19 1 AND NEW YEAR PARTY – 28/2/20 (the record of earlier meetings can be downloaded from the main Circulus page as can the version of Ciceronis Filius with illustrations added. The illustrated text of Genesis is available on the Genesis page, of Kepler's Somnium on the Somnium page and of Nutting's Ad Alpes on the Ad Alpes page)..
Food ordered included cicera aromatica (chana masala), iūs aromaticum lentium (daal tarka), batātae cum brassicā Pompeiānā (aloo gobi), caseus fervēns (sizzling paneer (cheese)), melongēna contūsa (baingan bharta, mashed eggplant), carō ruber (rogan josh), spīnācia cum caseō,(saag paneer), okrum arōmaticum (bhindi masala, `lady’s fingers’, okra with spices), with samosaeholeribus fartae (vegetable samosas) for starters and accompanied by the usual pānis Persicus (naan) and orӯza (rice), plus, of course, vīnum rubrum/sanguineum.
Latinising rogan josh (a Kashmiri-style lamb curry) is difficult because the etymology of the original name is obscure. It may derive from roughan, Persian and Urdu for `ghee’ (clarified butter, i.e. butter fat with water and milk solids removed) and juš or josh, meaning to stew or braise, in which case it might be termed carō in gio cocta. Alternatively, rogan means `red’ (from Urdu roghan ( روغن), `brown’ or `red’, or from Kashmiri roghan, "red") and the second word is gošt (`meat’), giving us carō ruber. More details at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogan_josh
Zhang Wei had brought along the Chinese edition of Francoise Waquet’s Latin ou l’empire d’un signe, which examines the role of the language in European culture from the 16th to the 20th century – essentially from the time when it began to lose its role as the main means of actual communication at a pan-European level. Waquet’s main conclusion, which made her unpopular amongst some classical scholars, was that Latin’s retention of a central position long after it had been displaced first by French and then by English as a lingua franca was because it became a marker of membership of a social elite. This idea echoes a remark made by an anonymous Frenchman and often attributed to American Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes (1841-1935), who in fact just quoted it in a letter to a friend. The Frenchman was supposedly asked if a gentleman must know Latin and Greek and replied `No, but he must have forgotten them’ (see https://twitter.com/jdsnel/status/928713995414069250)
Eugene showed us his copy of Cleto (Cletus) Pavanetto’s Graecae litterae institutiones – pars prima. He had previously written to John that this and three other works by the same author, including Elementa linguae et grammaticae Latinae, which he had shown us in the December meeting, were still available from www.amazon.it The other texts were Graecae litterae institutiones – pars altera and. Romanorum Litterae et Opera Aetatis Nostrae Gentes Erudiunt. Pavanetto’s textbooks are unusual in that both the Latin and Greek ones have all the explanations in Latin.
Eugene had also explained that the earliest surviving writer on Latin grammar, Varro, a contemporary of Caesar and Cicero, had named five of the six cases on the Greek model: casus nōminandī or nōminātīvus, pātricus or pātrius (i.e. genitive), dandī (i.e. dative), accusandī or accūsātīvus,vocandī. Greek had no ablative case, so Varro simply used casus sextus (`sixth case’) for this,
The word vocātīvus was not employed before Aulus Gellius (c.125 till after 180. A.D.), while the terms genitīvus, datīvus and ablātīvus were not in use before the time of Quintilian (c.35-100 A.D.). In the writings of Donatus (4th cent.A.D.) we find the order nominātīvus, genitīvus, datīvus, accūsātīvus, vocātīvus and ablātīvus and the system of declining a noun together with the adjective/pronoun hic, which functioned rather like a definite article (vix. hic dominus, huius dominī etc.) This had the advantage of disambiguating forms like dominō which were shared by two or more cases. Later grammarians followed suit, except that the vocative (which was often omitted as it was usually identical with the nominative) was usually put after instead of before the ablative. In Britain, this ancient order was deliberately changed in the 19th century by Charles Kennedy, whose Latin Primer put the vocative after the nominative and the accusative next. The new system had the advantage of normally placing identical forms together and is still followed in British textbooks today. Other countries, including the USA, have retained the original Roman order.
Both in the meeting on 22 January and at our New Year gathering at Keon and Tanya’s on 28 January, we sang verses from the well-known drinking song from the Carmina Burana, `Bachus, bene venies!’ The briefer version used on the 22nd, is pasted below, followed by the longer version used on the 28th, which also has musical notation. The latter, however, also has a couple of typos and for a full, corrected version, with translation added, see the embedded videos and accompanying lyrics at https://linguae.weebly.com/corvus-corax.html
On the 28th, Tan, who has a special interest in memory techniques used by pre-modern societies, mentioned that in the Middle Ages, things needing to be remembered were deliberately associated with morally bad objects or ideas to make them less forgettable! On the theme of associations, she also recalled a French ash-tray inscribed je fume, tu fumes nous fûmes - `I smoke, you smoke, we existed’. All three verb forms are pronounced identically but the last, which is in the simple past tense (`passé historique’) only employed in writing, is not from the verb fumer (`to smoke’) but from être (to be) and can be the equivalent of `we’re dead!’
At the Basmati meeting we finished chapter 20 and read the whole of chapter 21 of Ad Alpēs (see text below). This prompted discussion of the exclamation pāpae used by Sextus, the younger brother in the family, after hearing the story of Midas and the Golden Touch. It was suggested that John’s translation with Cantonese waah was inappropriate as the latter was always positive, whilst pāpae often indicated simple surprise, as here, rather than positive approval. Chapter XXI, in a section referring to the emperor Nero,also covered the practice of flooding arenas to stage a mock sea-battle (naumachia) as entertainment and Sam thought Nero could be seem as anticipating the development of Ocean Park in Hong Kong. We also noted the practical problem of ensuring the water did not drain away!
The same chapter also alluded to tightrope-walking elephants. These can be found nowadays in Thailand, but with the animal walking on two parallel wires rather than one.
In the second Midas story related by Drusilla, Apollo gives the king donkey’s ears as a punishment for preferring Pan’s music to Apollo’s own. Both the king and Pan himself in fact got off lightly because when the satyr (goat-man) Marsyas dared to suggest he was a better musician than Apollo, the god proceeded to flay him alive!
Iste cyphus concāvus dē bonō merō profluus sī quis bibit saepius Satur fit et ēbrius
Istud etc. BACCHE BENE VENIES (as sung on 28/1/20)
Note that in the refrain at the bottom, the last word in the first line should be `ge-ne-ro-sum’ and the second in the second line `vir-rum’
AD ALPES - CHAPTER XX (contd,)
Interim sōl ārdēns in caelō fulgēbat; ac postrēmō equī aestū labōrāre coepêrunt. Quārē, Meanwhile sun burning in sky was-gleaming and finally horses from-heat to-suffer began So cum iam ventum esset, ad locum ubi haud procul ā viā complūrēs arborēs altae umbram since now come it-had-been to place where not far from road several trees tall shade grātissimam praebébant, raedās cōnsistere Cornēlius iussit. most-pleasing provided wagons to-halt Cornelius ordered Hīc līberī, dum equī reficiuntur, aliquamdiū cum Lūciō libenter lūsērunt, quem Anna, Here the-children while horses were-refreshed for-some-time with Lucius gladly played whom Anna palliolō substrātō, humī posuerat. Tum Drūsillae Cornēlia: “Iam diū factum est, māter,” with-a-little-cloak laid-beneath on-ground had-placed then to-Drusilla Cornelia Now long-time done it-has-been mother inquit, “cum tū nōbīs nūllam fābulam nārrāvistī. Dē bellīs pater et Pūblius semper said when you to-us no story have told about wars father and Publius always loquuntur. Nōnne tū vīs aliquid laetius nārrāre?'' speak don’t you want something more-cheerful to-tell At māter: “Metuō nē haud multa sciam, quae vōs audīre velītis. Sed fortasse numquam Then mother I-fear lest not much I-know which you to-hear would-want but perhaps never audīvistis quō modō Atalanta in mātrimōnium data sit.” You-have-heard in-what way Atalanta in marriage given was “Id quidem nōn audīvimus,” inquit Cornēlia. “Nārrā, sīs.” That indeed not we-have-heard said Cornelia Tell please Tum Drūsilla: “Atalanta erat rēgia virgō, quae cursū virōs superāre solébat; eam autem, Then Drusilla Atalanta was royal maiden who at-running men to-beat was-accustomed her also cum pulcherrima esset, omnēs iuvenēs in mātrimōnium dūcere cupiēbant. Illa vērō, etsī since very-beautiful she-was all young-men into marriage to-lead wanted she indeed although nūbere nōlēbat, celeritāte tamen suā frēta prōmīsit sê eī nüptūram, quī sē to-marry she-did-not-want on-speed however her-own relying promised herself him, to-be-going-to marry who her cursū superāsset. in-running had-beaten “Lēx autem certáminis erat, ut competītor victus occīderētur. Quā lēge dūrā haud Condition however of-contest was that competitor defeated should-be-killed by-which condition harsh not dēterriti, multī, pulchritūdine virgīnīs captī, in certāmen dēscendēbant; ac vīctī poenās deterred many by-beauty of-maiden captivated to competition came-down and the –defeated penalty dēdērunt. paid
NOTES  The present tense is normally used with dum, even when the verb in the main clause is in a past tense  i.e. `you haven’t told us a story for a long time’
“Postrēmō quīdam iuvenis, Hippomenēs nōmine, quī haec omnia procul aspexerat, Finally a-certain youth Hippomenes by-name who these-things all from-afar had-observed amōre incēnsus, in certāmen dēscendit. Quī cum in mediō stadiō cōnstitisset, virginī: “Cūr by-love set-on-fire to contest came-down He when in middle-of stadium had-halted to-maiden why facilem titulum tardīs superandīs quaeris?” inquit. “Tē mēcum cōnfer. Ego sum Neptūnī easy title by-slow-ones being-beaten do-you-seek asked yourself with-me compare I am Neptune’s nepōs; ac, sī vincar, tū nōmen magnum et memorābile habēbis.” grandson and if I am-beaten you name great and memorable will-have Hōc audītō, virgō, mollī vultū iuvenis mōta, paulisper dubitat, an superāre velit, et With-this heard the-maiden by-soft face of-youth moves a-short-while douts whether to-win she-wants and Hippomenam ā certāmine dēterrēre cōnātur. Ille autem in sententiā persevērat; ac rēx et Hippomenes from contest to-deter tries He however in opnion perserveres and king and populus cursum solitum poscunt. people race usual demand “Tum Hippomenēs clam invocat Venerem, quae forte aderat manū ferēns tria māla aurea Then Hippomenes secretly calls-upon Venus who by-chance was-present in-hand carrying three apples golden quae modo in agrō sibi dēdicātō ex arbore flāvā dēcerpserat. Haec māla, nūllō cernente, dea which just-before in field to-herself dedicated from tree yello she-had-plucked These apples with-nobody seing goddess iuvenī dēdit, docuitque quī ūsus esset in illīs. to-young-man gave and-taught what use was in them “Simulac signum tubā datum est, virgō et iuvenis ventō celerius per harēnam prōvolant. As-soon-as signal by-trumpet given has-been maiden and young-man than-wind faster across sand fly Illa facile superior erat; sed Hippomenēs, ā tergō relictus, subitō dē tribus mālīs ūnum She quickly ahead was but Hipomenes at back left suddenly from three apples one prōiēcit. Virgō cōnstitit ac cupidē sustulit aurum. Interim iuvenis praeterit, et resonant threw-forward maiden stopped and eagerly picked-up the-gold meanwhile youth went-past and echo spectācula plausū. rows-of-seat with-applause “Atalanta tamen celeriter moram corrēxit, et iuvenem iterum post tergum relīquit. Mālō Atalanta however quickly delay corrected and youngman again behind [her]-back left with-apple alterō prōiectō, virgō rūrsus cōnstitit, atque iterum cōnsecūta est. Tum Hippomenēs summā second thrown-forward maiden again stopped and again followed then Hippomenes greatest vī mālum tertium longē ā cursū proiēcit; puella dubitat, tum aurum petīvit. Sīc virgō, morā with-force apple third far from course hurled-forward girl hesitates then gold went-after thus maiden by-delay et mālōrum pondere impedīta, praeterita est, atque Hippomenēs victor praemium cēpit.” and of-apples weight hindered passed was and Hippomenes as-victor prize took
NOTE  Drusilla omits the unhappy ending in Ovid’s version of the myth: because Hippomenes neglected to thank Venus for her help, she induced the couple to make love in the sanctuary of the mother goddess Cybele, who punished the sacrilege by turning them into lions. For translations of the different versions in classical authors, see https://www.theoi.com/Heroine/Atalanta.html
“Euax!” inquit, Cornēlia. . “Tālia mē dēlectant.'' Hooray said Cornelia such-things me delight Mox omnia ad proficīscendum parāta erant; et tantō alacrius equī iam prōgressī sunt, ut Soon all-things for setting-off ready were and so-much more- readily horses now advanced that hōrā octāvā ad oppidum Sinuessam pervenirētur; ubi viātōrēs libenter ē raedīs at-hour eighth at town Sinuessa it-was-arrived where the-travellers happily from wagons dēscendērunt. got-down Drūsilla cum servīs statim sē recēpit in dēversōrium; cēterī autem per oppidum paulisper Drusilla with slaves at-once herself took-back to inn others however through town a-short-while ambulāre mālēbant. Sed sub cēnae tempus omnēs ad tēcta rediērunt to-walk preferred but towards of-dinner time all to building returned.
CHAPTER XXI Māne, dum viā Appiā celeriter vehuntur, Cornēliō Sextus: “Nudius tertius, pater,” inquit, In-morning whilst on-via Appia quickly they-are-conveyed to-Cornelius Sextus day-before-yesterday father said “cum Capuae essēmus, aliquem audīvī dīcentem urbem illam ōlim gladiātōribus when at-Capua we-were someone I-heard saying city that once for-gladiators celeberrimam fuisse. Quō modō hoc factum est?'' very-famous to-have-been in-what way this happened Tum pater: “Diū Capuae habēbātur lūdus, ubi gladiātōrēs exercērentur; quī, cum eō Then father for-long-time at-Capua was-kept school where gladiators were trained who when in-that genere pugnandī bene īnstitūtī essent, Rōmam missī sunt, ut ibi in harēnā populī dēlectātiōnis type of-fighting well instructed had-been to-Rome sent were so-that there in arena people’s enjoyment grātiā operam ēderent. Neque enim est ūllum genus spectāculī quod plērīsque magis placeat.” for-sake-of effort might-make neither for is any kind of-show which to-most more pleases “Mihi quidem,” inquit, Drūsilla, “omnia eius modī crūdēlissīma videntur, et magis To-me indeed said Drusilla all-things of-this kind very-cruel seem and more bēluis digna quam hominibus.” for-beasts worthy than for-men “Semper fuērunt, nōnnūllī,” inquit, Cornēlius, “quī tēcum sentīrent. Ac Cicerō ipse Always there-were some said Cornelius who with-you agreed and Cicero himself
NOTES  Sinuessa, about ten miles north of the Volturno River, was at the point where the Appian Way turned inland to cross the mountains.  The phrase nudius tertius derives from of nunc diēs tertius (`now [it is] the third day’ ) and means ` two days ago, the day before yesterday’ rather than `three days ago’, because of Roman inclusive reckoning  The verb sentīrent, like placeat three lines above, is subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic (`There were always the kind of people to agree with you..’)
quōdam locō tālia spectācula hīs verbīs improbat: “Quae potest hominī esse polītō dēlectātiō, in-a-certain passage such shows with-these words criticizes what can for-man be cultured enjoyment cum aut homō imbēcillus ā valentissimā bēstiā laniātur, aut praeclāra bēstia vēnābulō when either man weak by very-strong wild-animal is-torn-apart or splendid beasrt by-hunting-spear trānsverberātur?” is-pierced “Atque īdem aliō locō scrīpsit, sē cum eīs sentīre, quibus gladiātōrum spectācula And the-same-man in-another place wrote himself with those to-side to-whom of-grladiators shows inhūmāna vidērentur;—etsī exīstimat antīquitus aliter rem sē habuisse, cum capītīs inhumane seemed although he-reckons in-antiquity otherwise matter itself to-have-had when to-death damnātī inter sē dēpugnārent.” condemned among themselves fought-it-ought “Dē hōc amplius, sī vīs, pater,” inquit, Sextus; “nam dē huius modī certāminibus About this more if you-will father said Sextus for about of-this type contests numquam audīvī.” never I-have-heard Ac pater: “Eīs temporibus, dē quibus dīcit Cicerō, interdum capitis damnātīs And father in-those times of which speaks Cicero sometimes to-death to-those-condemned data est facultās optandī u trum statim mōrerentur, an aliquamdiū operam in harēnā eā given was opportunity of-chosing whether at-once they- died or for-some-time service in arena with-this condiciōne ēderent, ut, sī pōst certum tempus adhūc superstitēs essen tum līberī provision they-performed that if-after cert time still surviving they-were then free dīmitterentur. Cum hominēs ita inter sē dē lībertāte pugnārent, Cicerō certāmen honestius they-would-be-set when men thus among themselves for freedom fought Cicero contest more-honourable nec mōribus cīvitātis tam perniciōsum putābat.'' and-not to-morals of-state so destructive thought “Nōnne aliquid simile ab Hannibale factum est,” inquit, Pūblius, “cum bellum Italiae Surely something similar by Hannibal done was said Publius when war into-Italy īnferēns Alpēs trānsīret?” carrying Alps he-was-crossing “Rēctē dīcis,” inquit, Cornēlius. “Cum enim iam ad summōs montēs pervēnisset et brevī Rightly you-say said Cornelius when for already at summit-of mountains he-had-arrived and soon in Italiam dēscēnsūrus esset, mīlitēs suōs nōn sōlum verbīs sed etiam rēbus into Italy going-to-descend was soldiers his not only with-words but also through-actions cohortandōs ratus, ad spectāculum eius modī eōs convocāvit: needing-to-be-encouraged having-thought to spectacle of-this sort them he summmoned
NOTES  A quotation from Cicero’s letter to his friend Marius (Ad Familiares, 7,1,3).  `The situation to have been different’
“Captīvōs montānōs in mediō vīnctōs cōnstituit, armīsque ante pedēs eōrum Prisoners from-mountains in-middle bound he-placed and-with-weapons before feet their prōiectīs, interpretem interrogāre iussit, num quis ferrō dēcertāre vellet, sī victor thrown-forward interpreter to-ask he-ordered whether anyone with-sword fight-to-the-end wished if victor lībertātem arma equumque acciperet. freedom weapons and-horse would-receive “Montānī omnēs ad ūnum cupidē ferrum pugnamque popōscērunt. Quārē sorte ēlēctī Mountain-people all to a-man eagerly sword and-fight demanded therefore by-lot chosen sunt, quī dēpugnārent. Interim aspiciēbant Hannibalis militēs; quōrum mentēs maximê sunt were those-who would-fight-it-out meanwhile were-watching Hannibal’s soldiers whose minds greatly were cōnfirmātae, cum vidērent quam laetī in certāmen dēscenderent barbarī, quamque libenter strengthened when they-saw how happily into contest entered barbarians and-how gladly mortem ipsam oppeterent.” death itself they-met “Hoc quoque crūdēle mihi vidētur,” inquit, Cornēlia. “Nūllane sunt spectācula, quae This also cruel to-me seems said Cornelia no there-are shows which hominēs morī nōn cōgant?” people to-die not force “Maximē vērō,” inquit, pater. “Saepe populī dēlectātiōnis causā variae rēs īnsolitae et Very-much indeed said father often people’s enjoyment for-sake-of various things unsual and mīrandae indūcuntur. Velut, Galba ille, quī posteā imperātor factus est, novum spectāculī to-be-amazed-at are-put-on for-example Galba the-famous who afterwards emperor became new of-spectacle genus, elephantōs fūnambulōs, ēdidit. Et ōlim nōtissimus eques Rōmānus, elephantō kind elephants tightrope-walking put-on and once very-well-known knight Roman on-elephant vectus per fūnem dēcurrit.” carried along rope rode-down “Vellem tum adfuissem,” inquit, Cornēlia. “Tālia saltem perlibenter vīdissem. Erantne I-would-like then I-had-been-present said Cornelia such-things at-least very-gladly I-would-have-seen were-there
NOTES  Probably members of the Allobroges tribe who lived in what is now south-eastern France and part of Switzerland and had resisted Hanniabal’s advance through their territory.  From context, the noun mīlitēs is clearly nominative and subject of the sentence but, as the accusative plural is identical in form, placing the word at the end of the sentence is a little strange.  Servus Sulpicius Galba (3 B.C. – 69 A.D.) lead a revolt against Nero 68 and was emperor for seven months from June 68 to January 69 A.D. when he was assassinated by the praetorian guards who proclaimed his rival Otho emperor. Before the end of this `Year of the Four Emperors’, Otho himself was in turn overthrown by Vitellius and Vitellius by Vespasian. Galba’s introduction of elephant tightrope walking was made when, as praetor, he presided over the Floralia games held annually on 27 April  The Equites (Knights) were a social class ranking juust below the senators and had originally been citizens wealthy enough to own a horse and equipment and therefore employed as cavalry. They later lost this function but continued as a largely hereditary group, often invovlved in finance.
alia eōrum similia?” other-things to-them similar At pater: “Nōmen Daedalī, crēdō, saepe audīvistī. Meministīne quid eius fīliō factum sit?" then father name of-Daedalus I-believe often you-have-heard do-you-remember what his to-son happened “Meminī vērō,” inquit, Cornēlia. “Daedalus ālās fēcit, quibus fīlius per āera magnum I-remember indeed said Cornelia Daedalus wings made with-which son through air vast volāret. Īcarus autem ad sōlem propius accessit; cuius ārdōre, cērā mollītā, ālae solūtae sunt, could-fly Icarus however to sun nearer approached whose by-heat with-wax softened wings unfastened were ac puer infēlix in mare praecipitātus est.” and boy unfortunate into sea sent-headlong was Tum pater: “Imperātor Nerō ōlim in amphitheātrō idem temptārī voluit,” inquit. “Sed Then father Emperor Nero once in amphitheatre same-thing to-try wanted said but 'Īcarus' prīmō statim cōnātū décidit atque imperātōrem ipsum sanguine suō respersit.” `Icarus’ at-first immediately attempt fell and emperor himself with-blood his spattered “Paene Rōmānī nōminis mē pudet,” inquit Cornēlia, “cum tālia audiō. Imperātōrem Almost of-Roman name on-me comes-shame said Cornelia w hen such- things I-hear emperor quam crūdēlem, quī hominēs tam perīculōsa temptāre coēgerit!” what-a cruel who people such dangerous-things to-attempt forced “Aliud multō inhūmānius fēcit Caligula,” inquit, pater. “Ille enim, cum ad cibum Another much more-inhumane-thing did Caligula said father he for when for food ferārum mūnerī praeparātārum pecudēs cārius comparārentur, ex capitis damnātīs dīcitur of-wild-animals for-show prepared cattle quite-expensively were-obtained from to-death those-condemned is-said hominēs ēlēgisse, quibus ferae vēscerentur.” men to-have-selected on-whom wild-animals might-be-fed “Quāle mōnstrum hominis!” inquit, Drūsilla, “sī vērō homō omnīnō appellandus est.” What-a monster of-a-man said Drusilla if indeed man at-all to-be-called he-is “Naumachiam quoque Nerō exhibuit,” inquit Cornēlius, “in lacū marīnā aquā replētō, Sea-battle also Nero put-on said Cornelius in lake with-sea water filled ubi etiam bēluae nābant; atque ā Claudiō spectāculum simile ēditum est. where even beasts were-swimming and by Claudius show similar put-on was “Hic autem, cum prōpugnātōrēs (ut solent gladiātōrēs) conclāmāssent: “Avē, He however when fighter s as are-accustomed gladiators had-shouted-together Hail
NOTES  Literally `of them’. The adjective similis could take the genitive as well as the dative case, coēgerit is perfect subjunctive in a relative clause of characteristic: `What a cruel emperor to make people…’  In fact it is now believed that gladiators did not regularly say this and that words spoken to Claudius were a one-off. The anecdote is told by Suetonius in his biography of Claudius (c.21): `When he had replied `Or not’ to the fighters shouting `Hail emperor, those about to die salute you’, this was understood as a reprieve and nobody was wiling to fight. For a long time he hesitated, wondering whether to destroy them with fire and sword. Finally, he leaped from his seat and running in different directions around the lake with unseemly indecisiveness, he compelled them to fight partly by threats and partly by exhortation.’ It should also be noted thart those ordered to fight to the death in this manner were usually ordinary condemned criminals, not trained gladiators.
imperātor, moritūrī tē salūtant,' diū dubitābat, an eōs inter sē pugnāre iubēret; emperor those-about-to-die you salute for-long-time was-in-doubt whether them among selves to-fight he-should-order postrēmō vērō ad pugnam compulit, signō proeliī ā Tritōne datō, quī māchinā ē mediō lacū finally indeed to fight he-forced with-signal of-battle by Triton given who on-a-machine from middle-of lake ēmerserat. had-emerged “Sed iam illīs dē rēbus satis diū locūtī sumus. Fortasse tū, Drūsilla, lībēris aliquid But now these about things enough long spoken we-have perhaps you Drusilla to-children something iūcundius nārrābis.” pleasanter will-tell Illa prīmō abnuit; nam dicēbat, sē nūper minimum temporis lēctiōnī dedisse; cum autem She at-first refused for said herself recently very-little time to-reading to-have-given when however Sextus et Cornêlia, blandius ōrārent: “Adhūc puella,” inquit, “saepe dē rēge Midā fābulam Sextus and Cornelia coaxingly kept-begging [when] still a-girl she-said often about king Midas story audīvī. Hanc, sī vultis, vōbīs fortasse nārrāre possum.” I-heard this if you-wish to-you perhaps tell I-can “Nārrā, sīs,” inquit Cornēlia. “Nōs ad audiendum parātī sumus.” Tell please said Cornelia we for listening prepared are Tum māter: “Ōlim Midās, Phrygum rēx, grātiam maximam ā deō Bacchō iniit, quod Then mother once Midas of-Phrygians king favour very-great with god Bacchus got-into because Silēnum āmissum ad eum redūxerat. Quārē deus rēgī facultātem dedit, optandī quid prō Silenus lost to him had-brought-back therefore god to-king opportunity gave of-choosing what for praemiō accipere vellet. Atque ille stultus: “Effice,' inquit, “ut omnia, quae corpore, reward to-receive he-wanted and he foolishly Bring-it-about said that all-things which with-body contigerō in aurum flāvum vertantur.''' I--will-have-touched into gold yellow are-turned “Haud stultus mihi rēx fuisse vidētur,” inquit Sextus; “nam istō modō dīvitiās maximās Not foolish to-me king to-have-been seems said Sextus for in-that way riches very-great
NOTES  Son of Neptune and Amphitrite, normally portrayed as a merman (with a fish’s tail in place of legs) and carrying a conch  The old satyr Silenus, whose role is prominent in Ovid but omitted from the shorter retelling in Latin via Ovid, was a satyr (a creature originally envisaged as a man-horse but later as a man-goat hybrid) and mentor to Bacchus. He was found wandering, drunk in the forest but then befriended by Midas. Aristotle’s version of the `golden touch’ story has Midas actually dying of starvation. The origin of the second Midas story may have been the use of donkey’s ears as an emblem of royalty in the Bronze Age kingdom of Mira in western Anatolia (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midas)
facillimē comparāre potuit.” very-easily obtain could “Ipsī quoque,” inquit, māter, “rēs prīmō ita sē habēre vidēbātur. Cum autem cibum To-himself also said mother thing at-first thus itself to-have seemed when however food capere vellet, et ministrī mēnsās dapibus optimīs exstrūxissent, tum haec quoque omnia rēgis to-take he-wanted and servants tables with-feast excellent had-loaded then these also all king’s tāctū aurea facta sunt; quī, dīves et miser, quid faceret, nōn habēbat.'' at-touch golden made were he rich and wretched what he-could-do not had “Mortālem infēlīcem!” inquit Cornēlia. “Quō modō ex tantīs malīs sē expedīvit?” Mortal unfortunate said Cornelia in-what wayfrom such-great evils himself he-freed Tum māter: “Ad caelum bracchia tollēns: `Dā veniam, pater Bacche,' inquit; 'peccāvī. Then mother to sky arms raising give pardon father Bacchus he-said I have sinned Sed miserēre, precor, mēque ex hōc malō ēripe.' But forgive I-beg and-me from this eveil pull-out “Quō audītō, deus mītis revocāvit mūnus, et Midae imperāvit ut quōdam in fonte With-this heard god gentle recalled gift and to-Midas gave-order that certain in spring lavārētur. Quod cum factum esset, vīs aurea ex corpore rēgis in aquam cessit; ac trāditum he-should-bathe which when done had-been force golden from body of-king into water passed and handed-down est in harēnā flūminis, quod inde oritur, grāna aurea etiam hodiē reperīrī posse.” it-has-been in sand of-river which from-ther rises grains golden even today to-be-found to-be-able “Pāpae!” inquit Sextus. “Hoc vērum esse vix crēdere possum.” Waah said Sextus This true to-be scarcely to-believe I-am-able At māter: “Idem dīcēs, cum vōbīs aliud nārrāverō, quod posteā huic rēgī Then mother same-thing you-will-say when to-you something-else -will-have-told which afterwards to-this king accidit: happened “Nam deus Pān, dum nymphīs tenerīs carmina fistulā mōdulātur, glōriārī ausus est sē For god Pan whilst to-nymphs tender songs on-pan-pipe plays to-boast dared himself Apollinem ipsum cantū superāre posse. Quārē illī duo ad certāmen sub Tmōlō iūdice Apollo himself in-playing to-surpass to-be-able so those two to contest under Tmolus [as]judge vēnērunt; quō in certāmine Pān facile victus est. came which in contest Pan easily beaten was “Tmōlī iūdicium omnibus placuit; Midās sōlus dissentiēbat. Quam ob rem prō tantā Tmolus’s judgement all pleased Midas alone disagreed which because-of thing for such-great stultitiā Apollō aurēs rēgis in spatium trāxit, eāsque in speciem asinī aurium mūtāvit. Itaque stupidity Apollo ears of-king into length dragged and-them into appearance of-ass’s ears changed and-so
NOTES  Tmolus was a legendary king of Lydia and later the god of the mountain of that name (now Bozdağ) which overlooks Sardis in Lydia, now in Turkey’s Manisa province.
Midās, ut hoc vitium turpe tegeret, semper posteā caput tiārā vēlāre coāctus est.'' Midas so-that this fault disgraceful he-could-conceal always afterwards head with-turban to-cover forced was Dum haec dīcuntur, nūbēs in caelō cōgēbantur, brevīque imber frīgidus cōnsecūtus est. While these-things are.being-said clouds in sky were-gathering and-soon rain-storm cold followed Viātōrēs, in vīllā quādam duās hōrās morātī, multō ante noctem tamen potuērunt Fundōs The-travellers in villa a-certain two hours after-delaying much before night still were-able Fundi pervenīre; ubi ad dēversōrium sine morā sē contulērunt. to-reach where to inn without delay themselves they-took
NOTES  A town on the Appian Way halfway between Rome and Naples, now known as Fondi,