QUESTIONS ARISING FROM 134th. MEETING – 27/5/22 (the record of earlier meetings can be downloaded from the main Circulus page as can the version of Ciceronis Filius with illustrations added. The illustrated text of Genesis is available on the Genesis page, of Kepler's Somnium on the Somnium page and of Nutting's Ad Alpes on the Ad Alpes page)
The usual variety of food was ordered, including melongēna contūsa (baigan bharta, mashed aubergine or egg-plant). The various words for this vegetable were originally discussed in the record of our October 2015meeting and the discussion periodically re-posted. Here, again, is the tangled story:
The aubergine (茄子.botanical name: solānum melongēna). which is related to both the potato (sōlānum tuberōsum) and the tomato (lycopersicum), seems to have been domesticated independently in East and South Asia and to have been brought into Europe by the Arabs in the early Midle Ages. Its Sanskrit name vātiṅgaṇa (वातिङ्गण), itself borrowed from a Dravidian original, has become baigan (बैंगन )in Hindi and bhantaa (भन्टा) in Nepali. The Sanskrit became in Persian bādinjān, which was transformed in Byzantine Greek into μελιτζάνα melitzána under the influence of the Greek μελανο- 'black'. This in turn was adopted into Latin as melongēna. The Arabs also borrowed the Persian word and this, prefixed by the article `al’, gave Catalan alberginia, whence the French and British English names. The Italians changed the Latin into melanzana, and re-interpreted this as mela insana, whence an obsolete English name for the vegetable – mad-apple. The Americans boringly broke the chain by calling it just `egg plant’. Finally, the Indian English name brinjal is a back-formation from the Portuguese berinjela! For more details see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eggplant#Names_and_etymology
Hillary, who is applying to Cambridge University, asked about the various colleges and Joe, a Cambridge alumnus himself, thought there was not too much to choose between them in terms of general atmosphere but that Peterhouse had the reputation of being rather right wing.
John suggested that noun morphology in Finnish, a member of the Finno-Ugric family, was more complex than in Latin because the former had 15 cases compared to Latin’s 5. However, Joe pointed out that the Finnish system was more akin to agglutination than inflexion in the true sense, since each case was normally marked by a single suffix that could be used with any noun. The suffixes are thus comparable to the postpositions found in languages like Japanese and Nepali.
Chris commented on the ongoing de-internationalisation of HK, as the number of expats is dropping, particularly because of the onerous quarantine system which HK, following mainland China’s lead, has retained whilst the rest of the world, including our arch-rival, Singapore, have switched to a policy of living with the virus.
Chris also complained about the use of the term `Catholic’ to refer to Christianity’s largest denomination. The fuller name `Roman Catholic’ is more appropriate as other denominations also claim to be part of the `Catholic’’(i.e. universal) Church. This applies particularly to what is known as the Anglo-Catholic (High Church) wing of the churches of the Anglican Communion such as the Church of England itself and the Episcopalian Church in North America). Anglo-Catholic beliefs and liturgical practices are closer to the Roman Catholics than are those of the Evangelical wing of Anglicanism. John had a friend at university, a very `High’ Anglican, who had once taught in a Glasgow school. Sectarian tensions have traditionally been quite severe there and, on his first day, he was asked in class `Sir, are you a Catholic or a Protestant?’ He proudly (and accurately!) replied, `Both!’
In Hong Kong not only the term `Catholic’ but also `Christian’ is often used too restrictively. From the start of missionary work in China only the Protestants used a transliteration of `Christ’ as part of their Chinese name for Christianity, 基督教 (Geidakgaau (Mandarin Jidu jiao), `Christ teaching’), whilst the Roman Catholics, in line with the Jesuits’ accommodationist approach to Chinese culture, used the term 天主教 (Tinjyu gaau (Mandarin Tianzhu jiào), `Lord of Heaven teaching’). This resulted in 基督教 being used as an equivalent both for `Christianity’ and `Protestantism’, even though the latter should strictly be translated as基督教新教 (`Christ teaching new teaching’). The result in Hong Kong English is utterances like `I transferred from a Catholic to a Christian school’, which sounds nonsensical in most parts of the world!
One of us recounted his experience running an Indian company at the request of the owner, an Indian who had been badly injured in a car crash to run company for him. Following the example of Henry Ford, who boosted his workers’ incomes so they would be able to but his products, he raised the pay of his, largely female workforce but virtually all the women whose salary he had tripled quit after a couple of years because they now have enough money to live on for some time. The original owner took over again but he had suffered brain damage in the car accident and kept suddenly punching people in the face. Inevitably, he ended up crashing the company.
We briefly discussed again the SECUNDINUS CACOR (`Secundinus the shitter’) inscription from Hadrian’s Wall illustrated in the record of our April meeting. Roman activities around the Wall and also their various forays north into Caledonia have left an extensive archaeological record and there is an interesting lecture on marching camps in Scotland at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SqAAUCJYU8. Sites probably occupied in the 80s A.D. by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the best-documented governor of Roman Britain, are shown on the map below. An interlinear translation of the biography of Agricola by his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus, can be found at https://linguae.weebly.com/tacitus.html
We read from c.17 in Book 1 of Eutropius’ Breviarium to chapter 5 in Book 2. This includes references to the `military tribunes with consular power’ who, from 444 B.C. onwards, were sometimes elected to take charge of the state in place of consuls. Livy and other later historians thought the system was intended to meet plebeian demands for a share of political power without actually admitting them to the consulship, the aim may have been only to meet changing administrative and military needs as all the tribunes down to 400 B.C. were actually patricians. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribuni_militum_consulari_potestate
The word tribūnus itself is cognate with tribūs and the military tribunes may originally have been the officers in charge of the fighting men from the three original tribes. Before the Marian reforms at the end of the 2nd. Century B.C.the six military tribunes for each legion, who have to be distinguished from the tribūnī mīlitum consulārī potestāte just discussed, held command in turn – two at a time – with appointments originally by the senate but the plebs by 311 B.C.gaining the right to elect four out of the six. From Marius’s time onwards the commander of a legion was a legātus with the tribunes as his staff officers, The senior among these, the so-called broad-striped tribune, was actually the second-in-command of the legion but his narrow-striped colleagues had no real authority.
We also briefly touched on the contrast between explicit (or declarative) and implicit memory, the former involving a conscious effort to recall and the second an automatic process. Research in this area often involves collection of data about mentally impaired persons. In one rather unethical experiment, a researcher concealed a drawing pin in his hand and then shook hands with patients suffering from a loss of declarative memory, When the same researcher approached the same patients later they refused to shake his hand but could not explain why. Neurological damage often affects second rather than native language ability but there is a recorded case of a Nepali whose condition resulted in the loss of the Nepali he had acquired naturally as a child yet the retention of the English he had toiled to learn at school.
 Sequentī annō cum in Algidō monte ab urbe duodecimō fermē mīliāriō Rōmānus In-following year when on Algidus Mountain from city at-twelfth roughly mile-stone Roman obsīderētur exercitus, L. Quīntius Cincinnātus dictātor est factus, quī agrum quattuor was-under-siege army Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus dictator was made who field of-four iūgerum possidēns manibus suīs colēbat. Is cum in opere et arāns esset inventus, sūdōre iugera possessing with-hands own was-cultivating he when at work and ploughing was found with-sweat dētersō togam praetextam accēpit et caesīs hostibus līberāvit exercitum. wiped-away toga bordered accepted and having-been-slaughtered enemies freed army
 Annō trecentēsimō et alterō ab urbe conditā imperium cōnsulāre cessāvit et prō duōbus in-year three-hundredth and second from city founded rule consular ceased and instead-of two cōnsulibus decem factī sunt, quī summam potestātem habērent, decemvirī nōminātī. Sed cum consuls ten made were who supreme power should-have decemvirs named but although prīmō annō bene ēgissent, secundō ūnus ex hīs, Ap. Claudius, Virginīī cuiusdam, quī honestīs in-first year well they-had-acted in-second one from them Appius Claudius of-Virginius a-certain who with-honourable iam stīpendiīs contrā Latīnōs in monte Algidō mīlitārat, fīliam virginem corrumpere voluit; already service against Latins on Mount Algidus had-fought daughter virgin to-violate wanted quam pater occīdit, nē stuprum ā decemvirō sustinēret, et regressus ad mīlitēs mōvit and-her father killed lest dishonour from decemvir she-suffered and retuning to soldiers caused tumultum. Sublāta est decemvirīs potestās ipsīque damnātī sunt. revolt taken-away was from-decemvirs power and-they-themselves condemned were
 Annō trecentēsimō et quīntō decimō ab urbe conditā Fīdēnātēs contrā Rōmānōs In-year three-hundredth and fifteenth from city founded the-Fidenates against Rome rebellāvērunt. Auxilium hīs praestābant Vēientēs et rēx Vēientium Tolumnius. Quae ambae rebelled help to-them provided the-Veians and king of-Veians Tolumnius these two cīvitātēs tam vīcīnae urbī sunt, ut Fīdēnae sextō, Vēī octāvō decimō mīliāriō absint. cities so close to-Rome were that Fidenae at-sixth Vei at-eighteenth mile-stone are-distant Coniūnxērunt sē hīs et Volscī. Sed Mam. Aemiliō dictātōre et L. Quīntiō Cincinnātō magistrō Joined themselves to-them also Voscians but with-Mamercus Aemilus i dictator and Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus master equitum vīctī etiam rēgem perdidērunt. Fīdēnae captae et excīsae. of-cavalry defeated also king they-lost Fidnae captured [was] and destroyed
 Post vīgintī deinde annōs Veientānī rebellāvērunt. Dictātor contrā ipsōs missus est After twenty then years the Veians rebelled dictator against them sent was Fūrius Camillus, quī prīmum eōs vīcit aciē, mox etiam cīvitātem diū obsīdēns cēpit, Furius Camillus who first them defeated in-battle soon also city for-long-time besieging captured
NOTES  Mons Algidus, a ridge forming part of the edge of an extinct volcanic crater, is at the south-eastern edge of the Alban hills and crossed by a narrow, strategic pass through which the Via Latina was later built. The battle was fought in 458 B.C. (Eutropius’s sequentī annō is an error) against the Aequi and in support of Rome’s ally Tusculum.  i.e. just under 3 acres. The noun iūgerum is 2nd. declension on the singular and 3rd in the plural.  A crimson-bordered toga was worn by magistrates as well as by free-born males who had not yet come of age.  302 A.U.C corresponds to 452 B.C., since the year of Rome’s foundation (753) counted as year 1, not year zero. However, the first decemvirs, tasked with codifying Roman laws, were chosen in 451. Appius Claudius Crassus was either killed or committed suicide in 449 after the decemvirs, who tried to stay in power without an election, had been overthrown. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decemviri and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appius_Claudius_Crassus mīlitārat is a contraction of pluperfect mīlitāverat.  439 or 438 B.C.  Eutropius normally uses urbs to refer to Rome itself and cīvitās for other cities.  The war against Veii actually began in 406 B.C. and Camillus, though not in charge throughout, led the final taking of the city in 396. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Furius_Camillus ipsōs is used here where no special emphasis is involved and classical Latin would have used eōs, illōs or hōs.  This use of the present participle obsidēns for an action which preceded that of the main verb cēpit is untypical of classical Latin which would have preferred a perfect passive participle: cīvitātem diū obsessam cēpit
antīquissimam Ītaliaeque dītissimam. Post eam cēpit et Faliscōs, nōn minus nōbilem oldest and-of-Italy richest after this he-captured also Falerii not lesss noble cīvitātem. Sed commōta est eī invidia, quasi praedam male dīvīsisset, damnātusque ob eam city but aroused as against-him resentment as-if booty badly he-had-divided and—condemned for this causam et expulsus cīvitāte. Statim Gallī Sēnōnēs ad urbem vēnērunt et vīctōs Rōmānōs reason and expelled from-city at-once Gallic Senones to city came and defeated Romans ūndecimō mīliāriō ā Rōmā apud flūmen Alliam secūtī etiam urbem occupāvērunt. Neque at-nineteenth mile-stone from Rome at river Allia having-followed even city occupied nor dēfendī quicquam nisi Capitōlium potuit; quod cum diū obsēdissent et iam Rōmānī be-defended anything except Capitoline could which when for-long-time they-had-besieged and now Romans famē labōrārent, acceptō aurō nē Capitōlium obsidērent, recessērunt. Sed ā from-hunger were-suffering having-been-accepted-gold so-not Capitoline they-would-besiege they-withdrew but by Camillō, quī in vīcīnā cīvitāte exulābat, Gallīs superventum est gravissimēque vīctī sunt. Posteā Camillus who in neighbouring city was-in-exile upon-Gauls fallen was and-very-heavily defeated they-were later tamen etiam secūtus eōs Camillus ita cecīdit, ut et aurum, quod hīs datum fuerat, et omnia, however also having-followed them Camillus in-such-a-way struck that both gold which to-them given had-been and all quae cēperant mīlitāria signa revocāret. Ita tertiō triumphāns urbem ingressus est et appellātus they-had-taken military standards recovered thus for-third-time triumphing city he entered and called [was] secundus Rōmulus, quasi et ipse patriae conditor. second Romulus as-if also he of-native-land founder
 Annō trecentēsimō sexāgēsimō quīntō ab urbe conditā, post captam autem prīmō, In-year threehundredth sixtieth fifth from city founded after [its] moreover first dignitātēs mūtātae sunt, et prō duōbus cōnsulibus factī tribūnī mīlitārēs cōnsulārī potestāte. offices changed were and instead-of two consuls made [were] tribunes military with-consular power Hinc iam coepit Rōmāna rēs crēscere. Nam Camillus eō annō Volscōrum cīvitātem, quae Henceforth now began Roman strength to-grow for Camillus in-that year of-Volsci state which per septuāgintā annōs bellum gesserat, vīcit et Aequōrum urbem et Sūtrīnōrum atque omnibus through seventy years war had-waged conquered and of-Aequi city and of-the Sutrini and with-all dēlētīs eārundem exercitibus occupāvit et trēs simul triumphōs ēgit. destroyed of-them armies occupied and three at-same-time triumphs held
 T. etiam Quīntius Cincinnātus Praenestīnōs, quī usque ad urbīs Rōmae portās cum bellō Titus also Quintius Cincinnatus the-Praenestinians who up to of-city Rome gates with war
NOTES  This event is dated to 390 B.C. in the traditional chronology devised by Varro in the 1st century B.C. However both this and many other dates given in these notes may be three or four years too early. See Jona Lendering’s essay at https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/varronian-chronology/ The Senones lived in the region around Rimini in NE Italy. See also chapter 25 of Ad Alpes.  i.e. 389 B.C. Eutropius is mistaken here as the system of military tribunes was introduced in 444 B.C., with a decision made yearly whether tribunes or consuls should be elected, and tribunes appointed continuously in the years 408 -394 and 391-367. While Livy and other later historians thought the system was intended to meet plebeian demands for a share of political power without actually admitting them to the consulship, the aim may have been only to meet changing administrative and military needs as all the tribunes down to 400 B.C. were actually patricians. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribuni_militum_consulari_potestate  The Volsci, a tribe living in southern Latium, spoke an Italic dialect related more closely to Oscan and Umbrian than to Latin and attested by a temple inscription from Velitrae (modern Velletri), the town from where the Octavii, the paternal clan of Augustus, originated. The inscription is discussed in Ernst Pulgram ‘The Volscian Tabula Veliterna: A New Interpretation’, Glotta, 54. Bd., 3./4. H. (1976), https://www.jstor.org/stable/40266373  Whilst Camillus did repulse a Volscian invasion of Roman territory in 389 and also conquered the Aequi, taking their capital of Bola, he failed to capture Antium (Anzio), the Volscian capital. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Furius_Camillus The Sutrini were the citizens of Sutrium (modern Sutri) in Etruria. The Aequi occupied the hill north of Praeneste (see map on previous page)/
vēnerant, persecūtus ad flūmen Alliam vīcit, octo cīvitātēs, quae sub ipsīs agēbant, Rōmānīs had-come having-pursued to river Allia defeated eight cities which under them were-acting to-Romans adiūnxit, ipsum Praeneste adgressūs in dēditiōnem accēpit. Quae omnia ab eō gesta sunt joined itself Praeneste having-attacked into surrender received which all-things by him done were vīgintī diēbus, triumphusque ipsī dēcrētus. within-twenty days and-triumph for-him decreed [was]
 Vērum dignitās tribūnōrum mīlitārium nōn diū persevērāvit. Nam post aliquantum nūllōs Indeed office o f-tribunes military not for-long endured for after some-time none placuit fierī et quadriennium in urbe ita flūxit, ut potestātēs ibi maiōrēs nōn it-was-decided to-be-appointed for-four-years in city thus there-was-disturbance that authorities there higher not essent. Praesūmpsērunt tamen tribūnī mīlitārēs cōnsulārī potestāte iterum dignitātem et there-were assumed therefore tribunes military with-consular power again office and trienniō persevērāvērunt. Rūrsus cōnsulēs factī. for-three-years they-lasted again consuls appointed [were]
 L. Genuciō et Q. Servīliō cōnsulibus mortuus est Camillus. Honor eī post Rōmulum With-Lucius Genucius and Quintus Servilius consuls died Camillus honor to-him after Romulus secundus dēlātus est. second paid was
 T. Quīntius dictātor adversus Gallōs, quī ad Ītaliam vēnerant, missus est. Hī ab urbe quārtō Titus Quintius dictator against Gauls who to Italy had-come sent was These from city at 4th mīliāriō trāns Anienem fluvium cōnsēderant. Ibi nōbilissimus dē senātōribus iuvenis L. mile-stone across Anio river had- settled there most-noble from senators youth Lucius Mānlius prōvocantem Gallum ad singulāre certāmen prōgressus occīdit, et sublātō Manlius offering-a-challenge Gaul to single combat having-advanced killed and having-been-lifted-up torque aureō colloque suō inpositō in perpetuum Torquātī et sibi et posterīs cognōmen accēpit. necklace golden and-on-neck own placed for ever of-Torquatus both for-self and for-descendants surname he-received Gallī fugātī sunt, mox per C. Sulpicium dictātōrem etiam vīctī. Nōn multō post ā C. Marciō Gauls routed were soon by Gaius Sulpicius dictator also defeated not much later by Gaius Marcius Tuscī vīctī sunt et octo mīlia captīvōrum ex hīs in triumphum ducta. Etruscans defeated were and eight thousand captives from them in triumph led
NOTES  In c.480 B.C. Praeneste, now known as Palestrina, is the birthplace of composer Giovanni Palestrina  A confused paragraph! There is evidence, however, that in least one year in the 360s no magistrates were elected and Livy seems to have assumed that this situation lasted four years so he could solve the chronological problem of four pairs of consuls apparently being missing from the official lists. See https://www.livius.org/articles/concept/varronian-chronology/  365 B.C.  The accusative termination -em shows that it was the Gaul, not Torquatus, who issued the original challenge. The incident is traditionally dated to 361 B.C. and Manlius’s praenomen given as Titus.  Gaius Marcius Rutilus, the first plebeian dictator and censor. After the first of his four consulships he was appointed dictator in 356 B.C. and after repelling an Etruscan invasion was granted a triumph despite senatorial opposition. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaius_Marcius_Rutilus  Captives were regularly killed after being paraded in a triumph.