QUESTIONS ARISING FROM 140th. MEETING – 25/11/22 (the record of earlier meetings can be downloaded from the main Circulus page as can the version of Ciceronis Filius with illustrations added. The illustrated text of Genesis is available on the Genesis page, of Kepler's Somnium on the Somnium page and of Nutting's Ad Alpes on the Ad Alpes page)
Before the arrival of five other members, John showed Jesse Luke Ranieri’s video on making a simple tomato pasta dish, which usefully includes a lot of Latin vocabulary for shopping and cooking. This is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOnF-5pmqjk with either Latin or English subtitles selectable. Luke, who has produced a wide range of Latin and ancient Greek videos, is an Italian American, normally based in the USA but recently uploading materials from Italy. The still below shows him in the supermarket where, first of all (omnium prīmum) he has to find lycopersica (`wolfpeaches’ or, more prosaically, tomatoes).
Jesse is regularly studying Italian, which his father studied at HKU as Latin was not an available option. John, despite many years teaching Latin for Dante, has little more than a very basic reading knowledge of Italian amd sums up his situation with the longest sentence he can produce: Anche sesono barbaro di settentrione, la Dante mi a impiegnato come insegnante di Latino [`Although I am a northern barbarian, Dante has employed me as a teacher of Latin’].
We dined on the usual range of dishes, including pisces aromāticī (fish masala), cicera aromātica (chana masala), spināchia cum caseō(palak paneer, spinach with cheese), brassica Pompēiāna (alu gobi, cauliflower with potato), holera mixta aromātica (mixed vegetables masala), agnīna (lamb), pānis tenuis (papadom), pānis Persicus (nan) and orȳza (rice). This was washed down with vīnum rubrum/sanguineum) and other drinks.
Eugene also showed a copy of Aristophanes’ The Clouds, a 5th century B.C. comedy which lampoons Socrates, portraying him as the kind of sophist that Socrates himself argues against in Plato’s dialogues. This cynical approach to philosophy contrasts with the admiration for Socrates expressed in Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations, written in Greek, the language in which the emperor had received his own philosophical education. One of John’s groups is reading a Latin translation of this produced by Johann Schultz in 1802. The interlinear translation so far prepared is available at https://linguae.weebly.com/marcus-aurelius.html, together with various background material.
Hilalary asked about the difficulty of learning ancient Greek and John confirmed that it was indeed more difficult than Latin both because the grammar was more complex and because there were fewer words whose meaning could be guessed from English. Joe, a professional linguist, was currently teaching himself some Greek but concentrating on the New Testament variety which is a little easier than either Aristophanes or Marcus Aurelius’ language.
There was brief discussion of Celtic languages in the British Isles, Joe had leaned a certain amount of Irish fee of charge undetr the Irish government’s scheme to promote the language. John thought that Welsh language, like the monarchy, helped keep British identity distinct from that of the much larger English-speaking USA. As we have noted before, a substantial proportion of the Welsh population do speak the language, even thought the majority are definitely English-dominant.
A good example of the langage, in its more literary form, is provided by `Hen wlad fy nhadau’, Wales’unofficial national anthm, a stirring rendition of which by Welsh opera singer Bryn Terfel is available on YouTube:
Mae hen wlad fy nhadau yn annwyl i mi, Is old land of-my fathers [in] dear to me Gwlad beirdd a chantorion, enwogion o fri; Land of-bards and singers famous-men of renown Ei gwrol ryfelwyr, gwladgarwyr tra mâd, Her brave warriors patriots very spelndid Dros ryddid collasant eu gwaed. For freedom lost their blood Gwlad, gwlad, pleidiol wyf i'm gwlad. Land land true am-I to-my land Tra môr yn fur i'r bur hoff bau, Whilst sea as wall for-the pure loved land O bydded i'r hen iaith barhau. 0 may-there-be to-the old language continuance
The two most familiar words to any speakers of English are beirdd (plural of `bardd’, a native Celtic term borrowed into English) and chantorion (plural of cantor, a loan word from Latin). Several other similarities with English and other European languages are not so obvious at first sight, partly because of the system of mutations – changes to initial consonants conditioned by the grammatical environment. Thus fur (pronounced `vir’) is actually derived fom Latin mūrus but this is disguised by the change from the dictionary form of the word and bur’s connection to English `pure’ is similarly obscured by the change from intial `p’to `b’. In the same way, the conection of nhadau with English `dad’ is only apparent from the unmutated, singular form tad. Easier to spot are môr’s status as a cognate of Latin mare and the relationship between wyr in ryfelwyr and gladgarwyr and Latin vir and,of course, the old Indo-European 3rd. person plural termination -nt, which survives also in Latin, Sanskrit and Old High German.
There was brief discussion of the organisations various countries have set up to promote their own language and culture abroad. The role of China’s Confucius Institutes in the UK is the subject of controversy and the British government seems set on stopping their operation within British universities. This was a pledge made by Rishi Sunak during last summer’s contest for the leadership of the Conservative Party, as highlighted in ancient Greek in Juan Coderch’s Akropolis World News bulletin for 25 October (at http://www.akwn.net/); Coderch, a Catalan who teaches Latin and Greek at St.Andrews University, is particularly concerned as he is himself currently studying Chinese at one of the Confucius centres.
Like the Confucius Institutes, the British Council and the Società Dante Alighieri work to promote the `soft power’ of their respective contries. However, both the Council and Dante are expected to fund their language teaching activities from student fees rather than relying on government subsidies. John has himself been teaching Latin for Dante in Hong Kong for the last eleven years and, back in 1987-89, when he first started teaching in Hong Kong, he was technically a British Council employee even though his actual job was done in a local secondary school.
Hillary was in the midst of preparation for a battery of examinations, including one for entrance to Cambridge University. This was to be taken on-line and she expressed surprise that exam security was so lax. She believed that passages set this year had temporarily been made public on the University’s website in advance of the window for taking the exam.
John referred to the general election recently concluded in Nepal. The three largest parties were again the Nepali Congress, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) and (in distant third place) the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre). In the immediate aftermath of the election it was expected that Congress and the Maoists would continue to work together in an ideologically anomalous coalition inteneded really to keep the UML leader K.P.Oli out of power. However, by the time this account of our discussions was written up (January 2023) things had changed radically with Maoist leader Pushpa Kumar dahal (`Prachanda’) becoming premier at the head of a coalition whose principal component was the UML.
The coalition included the Janamat Party set up by C.K. Rawat, who had formerly been leading an organisation agitating for the independence of the Tarai, the section of the Gangetic plain within Nepal, whose inhabitants, similar in language and culture to the Indians across the border, had long complained of discrimination at the hands of the politically dominant hill Nepalis. As in many countries, advocacy of secession is illegal in Nepal and Rawat was imprisoned for some time before reaching an agreement with the government in 2019 to abandon his separatist objectives.
There was also brief mention of Fr. Giuseppe Rovato, the Italian missionary, whose eye-witness account of the blockade and eventual conquest of the Kathmandu Valley by Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern state of Nepal, was first published in 1786 and later incorporated in William Kirkpatrick’s Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul, a foundational text for western scholarship on the country. His stress on the cruelty with which Prithvi Narayan Shah conducted his campaign has often been contested by nationalistically-minded Nepali scholars.
We returned to the vexed issue of the use of macrons in Latin texts, a practice which Chris C. is opposed to. In contrast, John is entirely in favour of it, as, given the small amount of exposure the average student has to the sound of Latin, marking vowel length in written text is the only way to ensure the learner at least has a chance of getting it right. John is particularly insistent on this point as hois own pronunciation as a school student was so bad. It was, for example, only at an advanced age that he learned to pronounce amāvērunt with the stress on the penultimate syllable. Thus, like St Augustine who became sexphobic after a promiscuous period as a young man, John is fanatic about combatting the appalling pronunciation he himself once exemplified,
We read chapters 11-20 in Book II of Eutropius (see below), which continued the account of the 2nd, Punic War. We noted the difficulty for the reader caused by the occurrence of several Hasdrubals among the Carthaginians, paralleling the difficulty sometimes encountered on the mainland because, especially with so many people having only two characters in their name, confusion between dirreent individuals was quite common. Also noted was the practice of referring to the Iberian penninsula as `the Spains’, in line with the separate provinces into which the Romans divided what is now Spain and Portugal. Stuart pointed out that in the 16th and 17th centuries the expression `the Spains’ denoted jointly both Spain proper and also the Spanish possessions in the New World.
 Post eam pugnam multae Ītaliae cīvitātēs, quae Rōmānīs pāruerant, sē ad Hannibalem After that battle many of-Italy cities which to-Romans had-been-subject selves to Hannibal trānstulērunt. Hannibal Rōmānīs obtulit, ut captīvōs redimerent, respōnsumque est ā senātū transferred Hannibal to-Romans offered that prisoners they-ransom and-response-made was by senate eōs cīvēs nōn esse necessāriōs, quī cum armātī essent, capī potuissent. Ille omnēs posteā those citizens not to-be needed who although armed they-were to-be-captured had-been-able He all afterwards variīs suppliciīs interfēcit et trēs modiōs ānulōrum aureōrum Carthāginem mīsit, quōs ex with-various punishments killed and three modi[27litres] of-rings gold to-Carthage sent which from manibus equitum Rōmānōrum, senātōrum et mīlitum dētrāxerat. Intereā in Hispāniā, ubi hands of-knights Roman of-senators and of-soldiers he-had wrenched-off meanwhile in Spain where frāter Hannibalis Hasdrubal remānserat cum magnō exercitū, ut eam tōtam Āfrīs subigeret, brother of-Hannibal Hasdrubal had-remained with large army so-that it all to-Africans he-could-subject ā duōbus Scīpiōnibus, Rōmānīs ducibus, vincitur. Perdit in pugnā XXXV mīlia hominum; by two Scipios Roman generals is-defeated he-loses in battle 35 thousands of-men of ex hīs capiuntur X mīlia, occīduntur XXV mīlia. Mittuntur eī ā Carthāginiēnsibus ad these are-captured 10 thousands are-killed 25 thousands are-sent to-him by Carthaginians for reparandās vīrēs XIĪ mīlia peditum, IV mīlia equitum, XX elephantī. being-replenished strength 12 thousands of-infantry 4 thousands of-cavalry 20 elephants
 Annō quārtō postquam ad Ītaliam Hannibal vēnit, M. Claudius Mārcellus cōnsul apud In-year fourth after to Italy Hannibal came Marcus Claudius Marcellus consul at Nōlam, cīvitātem Campāniae, contrā Hannibalem bene pugnāvit. Hannibal multās cīvitātēs Nola city of-Campania against Hannibal well fought Hannibal many cities Rōmānōrum per Āpūliam, Calabriam, Brittiōs occupāvit. Quō tempore etiam rēx of-Romans throughout Apulia Calabria and Bruttium occupied at-this time also king Macedoniae Philippus ad eum lēgātōs mīsit, prōmittēns auxilia contrā Rōmānōs sub hāc Of- Macedonia Philip to him envoys sent prmising help against Romans under this condiciōne, ut dēlētīs Rōmānīs ipse quoque contrā Graecōs ab Hannibale auxilia Condition that having-been-destroyed Romans himself also against Greeks from Hannibal help acciperet. Captīs igitur lēgātīs Philippī et rē cognitā Rōmānī in Macedoniam M. Valerium should-receive having-been-captured envoys of-Philip and thing learned Roman into Macedonia Marcus Valerius Laevīnum īre iussērunt, in Sardiniam T. Mānlium Torquātum prōcōnsulem. Nam etiam ea Laevinus to-go ordered into Sardina Titus Manlius Torquatus proconsul for also it sollicitāta ab Hannibale, Rōmānōs dēseruerat. incited by Hannibal Romans had-deserted
 Ita ūnō tempore quattuor locīs pugnābātur: in Ītaliā contrā Hannibalem, in Hispāniīs Thus at-one time four in-places there-was-fighting in Italy against Hannibal in Spain contrā frātrem eius Hasdrubalem, in Macedoniā contrā Philippum, in Sardiniā contrā Sardōs against brother his Hasdrubal in Macedonia against Philip in Sardinia against the-Sardinians
NOTES  Most of southern Italy went over to Hannibal, including most notably the city of Capua in Campania. Crucially, however, the Latin allies remained loyal.  Publius Cornelius Scipio, the consul of 218, and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (`The Bald’). Both brothers were on their way to Spain 218 when Publius had to attempt to intercept Hannibal in Gaul and then return to oppose him in Italy. Gnaeus carried on to Spain, taking Tarraco (modern Tarragona) in the north-east, establishing Roman control of the area north of the Ebro and defeating Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal in a naval battle near the mouth of the river. Publius joined him in 217 and they defeated Hasdrubal on land. The reinforcements that then had to be sent from Carthage had previously been intended to support Hannibal in Italy.  Marcellus, winner of the spolia optima when consul in 222, served briefly as a replacement consul in 215, then again as regular consul in 214.He successfully defended Nola from three attacks by Hannibal in 216, 215 and 214. In 215 he recovered Casilinum, which had been captured by Hannibal in winter 216-5. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Claudius_Marcellus  Apulia was a broad section of SE Italy.`Bruttium’ (the land of the Bruttii/Brittii) and `Calabria’ both referred to the SW peninsula stretching towards Sicily.
et alterum Hasdrubalem Carthāginiēnsem. Is ā T. Mānliō prōcōnsule, quī ad Sardiniam missus and another Hasdrubal Carthaginian He by Titus Manlius proconsul who to Sardinia sent fuerat, vīvus est captus, occīsa cum eō duodecim mīlia, captī mīlle quīngentī, et ā Rōmānīs had-been alive was captured killed with him twelve thousand captured thousand five-hundred and by Romans Sardinia subācta. Mānlius victor captīvōs et Hasdrubalem Rōmam reportāvit. Intereā etiam Sardinia subjugated Manlius victor captives and Hasdrubal to-Rome brought-back meanwhile also Philippus ā Laevīnō in Macedoniā vincitur et in Hispāniā ab Scīpiōnibus Hasdrubal et Māgō, Philip by Laevinus in Macedonia is-defeated and in Spain by Scipios Hasdrubal and Mago tertius frāter Hannibalis. third brother of-Hannibal
 Decimō annō postquam Hannibal in Ītaliam vēnerat, P. Sulpiciō Cn. Fulviō cōnsulibus, In-tenth year after Hannibal to Italy had-come with Publius Sulpicius Cornelius Fulvius consuls Hannibal usque ad quārtum mīliārium urbis accessit, equitēs eius usque ad portam. Mox Hannibal up to fourth milestone of-city approached cavalry his up to gate soon cōnsulum cum exercitū venientium metū Hannibal ad Campāniam sē recēpit. In Hispāniā ā of-consuls with army coming from-fear Hannibal to Campania sewlf took-back in Spain by frātre eius Hasdrubale ambō Scīpiōnēs, quī per multōs annōs victōrēs fuerant, interficiuntur, brother his Hasdrubal both Scipios who over many years victors had-been are-killed exercitus tamen integer mānsit; cāsū enim magis erant quam virtūte dēceptī. Quō tempore army however intact remained by-chancew for more had-been than by-courage out-smarted at-this time etiam ā cōnsule Mārcellō Siciliae magna pars capta est, quam tenēre Āfrī coeperant, et also by consul Marcellus of-Sicily great part captured was which to-hold Africans had-begun and nōbilissima urbs Syrācūsāna; praeda ingēns Rōmam perlāta est. Laevīnus in Macedoniā most-noble city Syracusan loot enormous to-Rome brought was Laevinus in Macedonia with cum Philippō et multīs Graeciae populīs et rēge Asiae Attalō amīcitiam fēcit, et ad Siciliam with Philip and-many of-Greece people and king of-Asia friendship made and to Sicily profectus Hannōnem quendam, Āfrōrum ducem, apud Agrigentum cīvitātem cum ipsō oppidō setting-out Hanno certain of-Africans general at Arigentun city with itself town cēpit eumque Rōmam cum captīvīs nōbilibus mīsit. XL cīvitātēs in dēditiōnem accēpit, XXVĪ captured and-him to-Rome with captives noble sent 40 cities into surrender received 26 expugnāvit. Ita omnis Sicilia recepta et Macedonia frācta; ingentī glōriā Rōmam regressus stormed thus all Sicily recovered and-Macedonia shattered with-great glory to-Rome he returned est. Hannibal in Ītaliā Cn. Fulvium cōnsulem subitō adgressus cum octo mīlibus hominum [ ] Hannibal in Italy Gnaeus Fulvius consul suddenly attacking with eight thousands of-men
NOTES  The Carthaginians sent troops to Sardinia in 215 to support the local revolt against the Romans, for whom the island was a major grain supplier.  Laevinus defeated Philip at Apollonia, a Greek city on the coast of what is now Albania in 214, relieving the city, which the king had been besieging, and making him burn his fleet. The ruins of Apollonia are about 11 miles from the modern city of Fier. The Scipios’ new victories in Spain were won in 212.  Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus Maximus and Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus were consuls in 211, which was actually Hannibal’s 8th year in Italy, In that year, Hannibal, failing to break the Roman siege of Capua,, marched on Rome but had to withdraw when part of the besieging troops were diverted to help defend the capital. Capua itself surrendered some months later and its territory was confiscated.  After the arrival of substantial new forces from Carthage, both brothers were killed in separate engagements in 211. The Romans were, however, able to maintain their hold on the area north of the Ebro. See Bird (p.88) for further details.  Syracuse, which had gone over to Carthage after Hiero’s death in 215, was besieged from 213 to 211. For the city’s capture and the killing of its great engineer, Archimedes, see the detailed narrative in Norman Davies, Europe –a History, pp.139-47. Davies regards the Roman victory as a crucial turning point in the 2nd. Punic War and in the development of European civilization.  Eutropius again telescopes events of different years. Laevinus, the victor of Apollonia three years before, made alliances with the Aetolian league of western Greece and with Attalus I of Pergamum, a kingdom often referred to as `Asia’. He secured the surrender of Agrigentum, a city on the southern coast of Western Sicily in 210, after which the rest of the island submitted to the Romans.. Philip of Macedonia only agreed a peace treaty in 205 after coming under threat from another Roman commander,
 Intereā ad Hispāniās, ubi occīsīs duōbus Scīpiōnibus nūllus Rōmānus dux erat, Meanwhile to Spain where having-been-killed two Scipios no Roman general there-was P. Cornēlius Scīpiō mittitur, fīlius P. Scīpiōnis, quī ibīdem bellum gesserat, annōs nātūs Publius Cornelius Scipio is-sent son of-Pullius Scipio who in-same-place war had-waged years aged quattuor et vīgintī, vir Rōmānōrum omnium et suā aetāte et posteriōre tempore ferē prīmus. four and twenty man of-Romans all both in-own era and later time almost first Is Carthāginem Hispāniae capit, in quā omne aurum, argentum et bellī apparātum Āfrī He Carthage of-Spain captures in which all gold silver and of-war equipment Africans habēbant, nōbilissimōs quoque obsidēs, quōs ab Hispānīs accēperant. Māgōnem etiam, had very high-born also hostages who from the-Spanish they-had-received Mago also frātrem Hannibalis, ibīdem capit, quem Rōmam cum aliīs mittit. Rōmae ingēns laetitia post brother of-Hannibal there captures whom to-Rome with others he-sends at-Rome huge joy after hunc nūntium fuit. Scīpiō Hispānōrum obsidēs parentibus reddidit; quārē omnēs ferē this news there-was Scipio of-Spanish hostages to-parents returned therefore all-people almost Hispāniae ūnō animō ad eum trānsiērunt. Post quae Hasdrubalem, Hannibalis frātrem, victum of-Spain with-one mind to him went-over after these-things Hasdrubal Hannnibal’s brother defeated fugat et praedam maximam capit. he puts-to-flight and loot very-much he-captures
 Intereā in Ītaliā cōnsul Q. Fabius Maximus Tarentum recēpit, in quā ingentēs cōpiae Meanwhile in Italy consul Quintus Fabius Maximus Taremntum revovered in which huge forces Hannibalis erant. Ibi etiam ducem Hannibalis Carthalōnem occīdit, XXV mīlia hominum of-Hannibal there-were there also general of-Hannibal Carthalo he-killed 25 thousand of-persons captīvōrum vēndidit, praedam mīlitibus dispertīvit, pecūniam hominum vēnditōrum ad fiscum captives he-sold loot to-soldiers he-distributed money from-people sold to treasury retulit. Tum multae cīvitātēs Rōmānōrum, quae ad Hannibalem trānsierant prius, rūrsus sē he-brought-back then many cities of-Romans which to Hannibal had-gone-over before again selves Fabiō Maximō dēdidērunt. Īnsequentī annō Scīpiō in Hispāniā ēgregiās rēs ēgit et per sē et to-Fabius Maximus surrendered in-following year Scipio in Spain outstanding things did both through him and
NOTES  Gnaeus Fulvius, presumably the consul of 211 now serving as pro-consul, was defeated and killed in 210, when hoping to recover the town of Herdonia in Apulia, This was Hannibal’s last victory of the war, See also Livy XXVII.1 and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Herdonia_(210_BC)  The plural Hispāniae is used here because the Romans divided the Iberian peninsula into different provinces. Their number was increased over time but the five set up by Diocletian in 293 (see the map at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Hispania#/media/File:Iberia_293.svg) were probably the ones Eutropius knew. For further details on the history of Spain under Roman rule see John Richardson’s The Romans in Spain  P. Cornelius Scipio, given the additional name `Africanus’ after his defeat of Hannibal at Zama in 202, arrived in Spain in 210.  This settlement, modern Cartagena. was originally called Mastia. Chosen as their main base by the Carthaginians for its excellent natural harbour, it was named by them Qart Hadasht (`New Town’) after their own capital. Scipio renamed it Carthāgō Nova (literally `New New Town’) after capturing it in 209. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartagena,_Spain#Ancient_history  There seems to be some confusion here as Hannibal’s brother, Mago Barca, continued serving as a Carthaginian general in Spain until after Scipio’s final victory there in 206. He subsequently carried out an invasion of Italy in 205 but was prevented by the Romans from linking up with Hannibal and, like him, was recalled to Carthage in 203. The town of Mahon in the Balearic Islands, from which the word `mayonnaise’ derives, was allegedly founded by him  Scipio defeated Hasdrubal in 208 at the battle of Baecula in Andalusia (southern Spain), for which see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Baecula , but he still had most of his army and led it along Hannibal’s earlier route to try to join his brother in Italy.  Tarentum was re-taken in 208.  i.e cities which had been in Roman possession, not which had Roman inhabitants.  A rather irregular use of the reflexive pronoun as Scipio is not the subject of the verb in its clause (recēpērunt, presumably referring to the Romans in general)
per frātrem suum L. Scīpiōnem; LXX cīvitātēs recēpērunt. In Ītaliā tamen male pugnātum through brother his Lucius Scipio 70 cities they-recovered in Italy however badly fought est. Nam Claudius Mārcellus cōnsul ab Hannibale occīsus est. it-was. For Claudius Marcellus consul by Hannibal killed was  Tertiō annō postquam Scīpiō ad Hispāniās profectus fuerat, rūrsus rēs inclitās gerit. In-third year after Scipio for Spain set-out had again things glorious he-does Rēgem Hispāniārum magnō proeliō victum in amīcitiam accēpit et prīmus omnium ā vīctō king of-Spains in-great battle defeated into friendship he-receives and first of-all from the-defeated obsidēs nōn poposcit. hostages not he-demanded
 Dēspērāns Hannibal Hispāniās contrā Scīpiōnem diūtius posse retinēre, frātrem suum Abandoning-hope Hannibal Spain against Scipio longer to-be-able to-hold brother his Hasdrubalem ad Ītaliam cum omnibus cōpiīs ēvocāvit. Is veniēns eōdem itinere, quō etiam Hasdrubal to Italy with all forces summoned he coming by-same route by-which also Hannibal vēnerat, ā cōnsulibus Ap. Claudiō Nerōne et M. Līviō Salīnātōre apud Sēnam, Hannibal had-come by consuls Appius Claudoius Nero and Marcus Livius Salinator at Sena Pīcēnī cīvitātem, in īnsidiās conpositās incidit. Strēnuē tamen pugnāns occīsus est; ingentēs of-Picenum city into ambush laid fell vigorously however fighting killed he-was great eius cōpiae captae aut interfectae sunt, magnum pondus aurī atque argentī Rōmam relātum of-him forces captured or killed were great weight of-gold and of-silver to-Rome brought-back est. Post haec Hannibal diffīdere iam dē bellī coepit ēventū. Rōmānīs ingēns animus was after this Hannibal to-lack-confidence now about of-war began outcome to-Romans great encouragement accessit; itaque et ipsī ēvocāvērunt ex Hispāniā P. Cornēlium Scīpiōnem. Is Rōmam cum came and-so also they summoned from Spain Publius Cornelius Scipio he to-Rome with ingentī glōriā vēnit. Huge glory came
 Q. Caeciliō L. Valeriō cōnsulibus omnēs cīvitātēs, quae in Brittiīs ab Hannibale With Quintus Caecilius Lucius Valerius consuls all cities which in Bruttium by Hannibal tenēbantur, Rōmānīs sē trādidērunt. were-held to-Romans selves handed-over
 Annō quārtō decimō posteāquam in Ītaliam Hannibal vēnerat, Scīpiō, quī multa bene in In-year fourth tenth after into Italy Hannibal had-come Scipio who many-things well in
NOTES  Marcellus, who had slain a Gallic chieftain at Clastidium in 222 and captured Syracuse in 211, was serving as consul for the 5th time in 208 when he was ambushed by Hannibal’s Numidian cavalry near Tarentum. His fellow consul died in the same incident.  Although `the third year after Scipio’s arrival’ should be 208 or (not counting 210) 207, the reference is presumably to the defeat of the remaining Carthaginian forces at Ilipa near modern Seville in 206, and to Attenes, a chieftain of the Turdetani in the far-south of Spain, going over to the Roman side. Scipio himself visited North Africa to confirm an alliance with the Numidian chieftain, Syphax He was also joined by Masinissa, a rival Numidian prince, who had hitherto fought for Carthage.  Sena Gallica (modern Senigallla) on the Adriatic coast in Umbria. Hasdrubal, leading an army of about 30,000, was defeated on the River Metaurus near here in 207 after an intercepted letter to his brother revealed his plans.  Scipio returned to Rome in 206 and was consul in 205..  L.Valerius Philo and Q. Caecilius Metellus were consuls in 206 B.C. Hannibal had withdrawn into Bruttium (the extreme south-west of Italy) after his brother’s death. The Romans hurled Hasdrubal’s severed head into Hannibal’s camp, though Hannibaal had allowed Marcellus a proper funeral in 208 and sent his ashes in a casket to his son (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Claudius_Marcellus)  Hannibal had reached Italy in 218 and Scipio invaded Africa in 204. This move was opposed by many senators, including Quintus Fabius Maximus, but strongly supported by the people. Not allowed adequate troops by the senate, Scipio enlisted the disgraced survivors of Cannae in Sicily, which (like Britain for later Romans and Hong Kong for 19th century Britons) was seen as a punishment posting.
Hispāniā ēgerat, cōnsul est factus et in Āfricam missus. Cui virō dīvīnum quiddam inesse Spain has-done consul was made and into Africa sent in-this man divine something to-reside exīstimābātur, adeō ut putārētur etiam cum nūminibus habēre sermōnem. Is in Āfricā contrā was-reckoned so-much that he-was-thought even with deities to-have conversation he in Africa against Hannōnem, ducem Āfrōrum, pugnat; exercitum eius interficit. Secundō proeliō castra capit Hanno general of-Africans fights army of-him kills in-second battle camp captures cum quattuor mīlibus et quīngentīs mīlitibus, XĪ mīlibus occīsīs. Syphācem, Numidiae rēgem, with four thousand and five-hundred soldiers 11 thousands killed Syphax of-Numidia king quī sē Āfrīs coniūnxerat, capit et castra eius invādit.  Syphāx cum nōbilissimīs who self to-Africans had-joined captures and camp his enters Syphax with most-noble Numidīs et īnfīnītīs spoliīs Rōmam ā Scīpiōne mittitur. Quā rē audītā omnis ferē Ītalia Numidians and unlimited spoils to-Rome by Scipio is-sent With-this thing heard all almost Italy Hannibalem dēserit. Ipse ā Carthāginiēnsibus redīre in Āfricam iubētur, quam Scīpiō vastābat. Hannibal deserts He-himself by Carthaginians to-return to Africa is-ordered which Scipio was-laying-waste
NOTES  After landing with 35,000 men about 35 kilometres NW of Carthage, Scipio captured several towns and defeated a Carthaginian cavalry force. He intended to take the city of Utica but had to withdraw when large forces under Hasdrubal and the Numidian chieftain Syphax, approached; the latter had switched allegiance from Rome to Carthage partly because of the charms of Hasdrubal’s daughter, Sophonisba, who was now his wife. Scipio spent the winter of 204-203 in `Castra Cornelia’, a fortified camp set up on a peninsula SE of Utica (see map). He opened peace negotiations with the Carthaginians as a ploy, but in the spring launched a surprise attack, setting fire to the enemy’s camps and destroying their forces (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Utica_(203_BC). The Carthaginians raised fresh troops but Hasdrubal and Syphax were defeated decisively in the `Battle of the Plains’ at Campi Magni in the Bagradas Valley. Masinissa and Scipio’s lieutenant Laenius pursued Syphax, defeating him again near Cirta (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Great_Plains)  The town of Cirta surrendered when Syphax was displayed as a prisoner before its walls. Masinissa, decided to marry Sophonisba, to whom he had once been engaged, to save her from Roman vengeance. However, Scipio finally demanded that she be surrendered to appear in his triumph in Rome and Masinissa provided her with poison to commit suicide,