QUESTIONS ARISING FROM 72nd. MEETING – 25/11/16 ( the record of earlier meetings can be downloaded from the main Circulus page)
Food included spīnāchia cum caseō (saag paneer, spinach with cheese), cicer arōmaticum (chana masala, spiced chick-peas), agnīna (-ae f) in iūre acrī (lamb curry, which should perhaps rather be carium agnīnum as David Morgan’s neo-Latin word list uses carium (-ī, n), a latinization of the Tamil word kari (sauce), from which `curry’ derives), iūs lentium butyrātum (`buttered lentil soup’, daal makhani), gallīnācea butyrāta (buttered chicken), and one Chinese-style dish, holera mixta cum aliō/alliō frīcta (garlic fried mixed vegetables), with the usual orȳza, -ae f (rice ), pānis Persicus (naan) and vīnum rubrum or (to use John Traupman’s preferred term) vīnum sanguineum (`bloody wine’). As glaciēs dulcis Indica (kulfi, Indian ice-cream) was not available, those of us with a sweet tooth opted for gulab jamun (placenta lactea?), `milk cake’). This dish is made from milk-solids shaped into balls and deep-fried, then served in syrup, so it might be described more accurately as placenta lactea frīcta cum iūre dulcī, but that is really a definition rather than a translation. The word gulab itself is Persian for rose-water (the traditional base for the syrup) though in Urdu (an Indic language with a lot of its vocabulary drawn from Persian and Arabic) it has come to mean simply `rose’ (see http://forum.wordreference.com/threads/urdu-persian-gulaab-rose.2494900/) and has been borrowed with this sense inot Nepali and other South Asian languages. The word jamun comes from the name of a fruit similar in size and shape to the food itself (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulab_jamun)
More detail on cicer and on daal makhani is provided in the record of the July and May 2016 meetings respectively. David Morgan’s list, which is drawn from a large variety of medieval and modern sources, is now being maintained and enlarged by Patrick Owen and is available free of charge on the Wyoming Catholic College server at http://wyomingcatholiccollege.com/faculty-pages/patrick-owens/lexicon/adumbration
Chris was relieved that he had now finally submitted his M.Phil dissertation, an examination of Cicero’s motives for his writing on philosophical topics. He had argued that Cicero was mainly concerned with seeking prestige in another arena after political opportunities seemed closed off by the renewal of the alliance between Pompey, Caesar and Crassus at Luca (modern Lucca in northern Italy, but then part of Cisalpine Gaul) in 56 B.C. The working title for the thesis was Pervulgātiō Glōria Causā’ (`Publication for the sake of Glory’). The Latin glōria perhaps had a stronger connotation than its English derivative of self-glorification or boasting, which is quite apt for Cicero. By modern standards, he we excessively concerned with his own reputation and, among other things, penned a poem entitled Dē Cōnsulātū Suō (`On his Consuship’), of which just a few fragments survive, including what is arguably the most unfortunate line of classical hexameter verse still extant: Ō fortūnātam nātam mē cōnsule Rōmam (`O lucky Roman state (re)bon when I was consul’). A brief discussion of Cicero’s enduring influence throughgh his career and other writings is provided conveniently in Mary Beard’s review of a Anthony Everitt’s biography, Cicero: a Turbulent Life, at http://www.lrb.co.uk/v23/n16/mary-beard/lucky-city
Chris also made the point that the holy grail of traditional textual sriticim – weeding out copyists’ errors to arrive at the exact words of the original author – iss unattainable because a clear date of first publication did not normally exist. Writers would put different drafts into circulation, revising constant;ly after feedback, and several such versions might then be perpetuated down the chain of copyists,.
We also touched on the linguistic background to Chris’ upbringing in Soth Africa. His father was an Afrikaaner and his mother, though actually a native speaker of English, had acquired standard Afrikaans and spoke only this to Chris until he was in his teens. He therefore started his education in Afrikaans but, like others who did well in English as a second language classes, he was later transferred to a native speakers’ English class. Don, who is fluent in a bewildering number of languages, noted that he himself had had an Afrikaaner Scout Master in Britain but did not say whether instruction on erecting a ridge tent or tying reef knots were issued in Afrikaans or English
Pat would soon be off to a conference, bearing with him unmarked exam scripts, and would then spend Christmas in the UK. It was provisionally agreed that Tan would host the traditional festive gathering at Campus Pictus (Kam Tin) after his return.
There was a brief discussion of the Vandal invasion of Spain and North Africa. Pat mentioned that St. Augustine, who was bishop of Hippo, died during their siege of the city in 430. We also noted Augustine’s own indifference to the fate of the Roman state. He was perfectly happy with rule by the Germanic tribesmen as long as they agreed to become Christians. See the details at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vandals
We read further sections of Ciceronis Filius on Roman eating and marriage customs. Tan noted that the prōnuba, an older woman who escorted the bride during the ceremony, had a rough modern equivalent in the maid of honour. The latter’s role, howeve, lay more in giving behind the scenes advice and guidance rather than playing a prominent part in the public ceremony. The prōnuba, in contrast, is commonly depicted in Roman art placing the bride and groom’s hands together.
There was also discussion of the Roman custom of the groom pretending to seize hold of the bride and pull her away from her mother, who sought to retain her. This led to mention of modern Asian wedding customs, which, particularly in Korea, can include hazing of the bride and groom. Tan remembers on her own wedding day people crowding into their hotel bedroom to play various tricks and making so much noise that the management had to intervene. She also mentioned a New Territories custom of the groom’s party needing to bribe the bride by passing money under the door until she agreed to let them in.
On the Roman food front, it was pointed out that the `dor’ element in the word dormouse derives from French dormir (to sleep) and refers to the animal’s lengthy period of hibernation. In German, the equivalent name Schlafmaus is used. We also noted that although Cicerōnis Fīlius glosses thermopolium as `bar’, the provision of hot food at these establishments was at least as important as the sale of alcoholic drinks. Pompeiis had a large number of thermopolia and a large proportion of the population probably took their lunch in them. Chris suggested they were really the equivalent of the Japanese izakaya, a bar specializing in snacks
Thermopolium in urbe Herculāneō situm
Cicerōnis Fīliius also mentions the medicinal use of bread, sayting that this has long been rejected by medical science. One of us pointed out, however, that the application of a bread poultice to a wouldn was a common practice until quite recently. Penicillin mould can grow on bread but a quick search on the Internet failed to find evidence to confirm the story that the mould that got into Alexander Fleming’s petri dish was from a piece of bread
Our text also lists various foods and beverages unkjnown to the Romans, among them tea. The modern English word came into use in the mid-17th century in various spellings -tay, thea, tey, tee – but was then pronounced to rhyme with day, the modern pronunciation becoming standard about 100 years later. The word came ultimately from t’e, the Amoy (Fukkien) dialect pronunciation of茶, which was borrowed via Malay and Dutch. The Mandarin pronunciation ch'a, trans mitted via Macao and Portuguese, was adopted earlier into English as chaa, attested in the 1590s but later falling out of use (see the entry at www.etymonline.com). .
There was finally a query about other commodities traded along the Silk Road. These seem to have included principally gold, jade, tea and spices. All of these commanded a high enough price to justify the cost of transport over such great distances on land.
CICERONIS FILIUS – pp.26-30
Quōs cibōs Rōmānī ignōrāvērint Quicquid vel Italiae agrī ferēbant, vel in vīllārum cortibus, piscīnīs, leporāriīs, glīrāriīs, aviāriīs alēbātur, quicquid ex externīs vel maximē remōtīs terrīs marī vehēbātur, ea omnia Rōmae dīvitum mēnsās ōrnābant. At quam multa Rōmānīs dēerant quae nunc subtīliōris palātī hominēs mēnsārum dēliciās putant! Nec minor erat pōtiōnum paucitās quam cibōrum: `theam’, quam dīcimus, post merīdiem dūcere Rōmānōrum mātrōnīs mōs nōn erat: nēmō enim iīs rēbus ūtī potest quae nūllae sunt. Nūlla apud Rōmānōs lycopersica (`tomatoes’) erant, nūlla solāna tuberōsa (`potatoes’) erant; nōndum vulgātus erat phaselōrum (`kidney-beans’) ūsus, parum cognita odōrāta illa tubera (`truffles’), quibus nihil est in mēnsīs nostrīs exquisitius. Rārissima et ex orientis sōlis partibus advecta pōma citrea, sūcō vel acrī (`lemons’) vel dulcī (`oranges’), quae quidem prīmum post Dioclētiānī aetātem in Italiā crēscere coepērunt. Saccharon (`sugar’) ipsum ad medicīnam tantum ūsum adhibēbātur; farīnā, melle et mustō subācta puerōrum crustula parabantur; cētera bellāria item.
Quae apud nōs convīviōrum iūcunditātem potissimum augent, adeō antīquitās ignōrāvit, ut nē nōmen quidem quō illa significārī possint inveniātur. Quisnam igitur scīre potest quō nōmine Cicerō, putā, vel Caesar fabam illam Ārabicam, quam nōs `coffee’ vocāmus, fuerint, sī nōssent, dictūrī? Pōtiōnēs etiam, vīnō validiōrēs, quās nōs `liqueurs’ dīcimus, penitus ignōrābant. Nē tamen crēdideris tabernās pōtōriās (`bar’ recentiōrēs hominēs dīcunt) apud antīquōs Rōmānōs nūllās fuisse. Thermopolia vocābantur; nec rāriōrēs erant quam apud nōs.
NOTES: quicquid, whatever; cors, cortis f, pen (for animals); piscīna, -ae f fishpond; leporārium, -ī n warren (derived from lepus, leporis m, hair), glīrārium, -ī n, place for keeping dormice. aviārium, -ī n, aviary; alō, -ere, auī, altum, nourish; vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectum, convey, transport. dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī, be lacking palātum, -ī n, palate; dēliciae, -ārum f, delicacies  Tea is first mentioned in a European text in 1545, in the spelling `chiai’, whilst Matteo Ricchi wrote it as cia (De Christiana expeditione (pp.76-77), preumably a transliteration of Chinese cha according to Italian orthography (see https://books.google.com.au/books?id=iLsWAAAAQAAJ). The Latinization thea became standard in the 18th century. iīs rēbus…quae nūllae sunt, `those things that do not exist’ lycopersicum, -ī n was a compound of Greek lycos (wolf) and (mālum) persicum (peach) and the tomato, brought to Europe from South America in the 16th century, was thus named because of its resemblance to the smaller fruit of deadly nightshade, which witches were believed to use to change themselves into werewolves. sōlānum tuberōsum (`knobbly nightshade’) is the botanical name for the potato, which was originally cultivated in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia and brought to Europe in the 16th century. Paoli’s original text uses the phrase sōlānā tubera, as if from an adjective tuberus, -a, -um, which is otherwise unattested (though tubera is the nom/acc. plural of the neuter noun tūber, tūberis, (`excrescence’) and thus may simply be an error.) Neo-Latin also use the alternative term pōmum terrestre, included in Bartal’s dictionary of medieval Latin as used in Hungary and perhaps modeled on the French pomme de terre.  Pliny and others used the word tuber for a kind of truffle but this was probably not the perfumed truffle popular today. See . http://www.tartuflanghe.com/en/tartufo-bianco/truffle-history/ adveho -ere, -vēxī, -vectum, bring, convey (to) citreus, -a, -um, citreous; Diocletian was emperor from 284 to 305 A.D. Medieval Latin coined aurantium, -ī n (from Sanskrit via Persian) for orange. The noun citreum (or mālum citreum) originally applied to the citron fruit, but was transferred to the modern lemon when this reached Europe in the 12th century. The latenrative names limō limōnis f and limōnium. –ī n were adapted from Arabic. adhibeō, -ēre, -hibuī, -hibitum, use; farīna, -ae f, flour; mel, mellis n, honey; mustum, -ī n, unfermented grape-juice; subigō, -igere, -ēgī, -āctum, break down, knead; crustulum, -ī n, pastry, small cake, biscuit; bellāria, -ium n pl,dessert, sweets; item, likewise. Quae apud nōs, `things which among us’; potissimum, most especially; adeō (qualifying a verb)…ut (with subjunctive) , so much…that (`antiquity was so much in ignorance of…that..’) significārī, to be expressed, to be referred to; quisnam, quaenam, quidnam, emphatic interrogative, `who/what,tell me’, `who/what on earth’ faba, -ae f, bean (as in the opening to the `Mr Bean’ films:`Ecce homo quī est faba’). nōssent, contraction of plpf. subj.nōvissent, `had known’; supply fuissent with dictūrī (`would have been going to call’), the transformation of dixissent (`would have called’) in the result clause of a counter-factual past conditional in an indirect (reported) question; penitus, completely nē..crēdideris, `do not believe’ (perfect subjunctive expressing a prohibition); taberna pōtōria, `drinking shop’. thermopolium, -ī n, a shop selling selling mulled wine and food from cylindrical jars set in the counter.
Dē pāne Quin etiam pāne vescī sērō Rōmānī coepērunt, cum ante Pūnica bella ūna puls in honōre fuisset: pānis optimus candidus vel mundus dīcēbātur; quī rudius cōnfectus esset, secundārius; īnfimī vērō generis plēbēius vel rūsticus. Sed pānis multifāriam fīēbat, nec ē frumentō sōlum sed ex hordeō, vel etiam ex mīliō aut pānicō. Inter varia frumentī genera nōbilissimum illud erat quod trīticum vocābātur. Frumentī sēmina agricola in arātīs agrīs ligōne condēbat; postquam vērō messis mātūruerat, ex spīcīs dēcussa grāna in pistrīnō frangēbantur. Tum pistor ex comminūtīs grānīs farīnam ā furfure sēcernēbat, eaque diū ac dīligenter subācta ita cōnfectum pānem in furnō coquēbat. Eandem igitur pānificiī operam apud veterēs cōnstat fuisse ac nostrā aetāte; idem iter, ut ita dīcam. Trīticō cōnficiendum erat ut dē agrōrum sōlō ad hominum mēnsam, tamquam dīvīnum quoddam dōnum pervenīret. At duplex pānis ūsus apud Rōmānōs erat, nam et cibō erat et remediō; multī enim morbī pāne cūrābantur; quam medendī ratiōnem iamdudum ars medica repudiāvit.
Tulliolae cēna nūptiālis Dum nōs dē Rōmānōrum convīviīs disserimus, in M.Cicerōnis domō magnificē convīvae epulantur. Cēna nūptiālis multās hōrās prōducta est, cum ab hōrā nōnā diēī discumbere coepissent. Cursitantēs per triclīnium famulī magnāsque lancēs capitibus sustinentēs operam convīviīs summā cum alacritāte nāvābant. Altilia adpōnēbantur, muraenae, sūmen; complūrēs insuper botellī quōs coquī suillā carne farserant, variīs condimentīs immixtīs, Quī ad nūptiās invitātī eō undique convēnerant, integram famem ad convīvium adtulerant, neque adhūc ad saturitātem comēdisse nec satis pōtāsse vidēbantur. Timidula Tullia prōnubae adsīdēns comēdēbat et ipsa; parcē tamen, quamquam, septimum et decimum annum cum ageret, puerīlī vorācitāte impulsa, suāvissimīs illīs cibīs adliciēbātur.
NOTES: Quin etiam…, indeed even…; vescor, vescī, feed on; sērō, late (adverb); Pūnica bella, , `Punic wars’, i.e Rome’s three wars against Carthage (264-241, 218-201 and 149-146 B.C.); puls, pultis f, a kind of porridge, which was once Rome’s sole(ūna) principal food. candidus, -a, -um, white; mundus, -a, -um, clean; rudius, -a, -um, more crudely; cōnficiō, -ficere, -fēcī,-fectum, make, complete. īnfimus, -a, -um, lowest, worst; multifāriam, in many ways frumentum, -ī n, corn; hordeum, -ī n, barley; mīlium, -ī n, millet; pānicum, -ī n, panic-grass, fox-tail millet (Setaria Italica, Panicum Italicum), a wide-spread variety of millet, probably first cultivated in China c. 6000 B.C. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foxtail_millet trīticum, -ī n, wheat; arō, arāre, arāvī, arātum, plough ligō, ligōnis f, hoe, mattock; condō. –ere, condidī, conditum, bury, found; messis, messis f, harvest, crop; mātūrēscō,-ere, mātūrūī, ripen; spīca, -ae f, ear of corn; dēcutio, -ere, --cussi,-cussum, strike off, shake off; grānum, -ī n, grain; pistrīnum, -ī n, bakery. pistor, pistōris m, baker; comminuō, -ere, -inuī, -inūtum,break up, crush; furfur, -ūris m, bran; sēcernō, -ere, secrēvī, secrētum, separate off. furnus, -ī m,, oven; pānificium, -ī n, bread-making cōnstat, is agreed, is generally known; eāndem…ac, the same as; idem iter, ut ita dīcam, `the same route, so to say’. perveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum, arrive; et cibō et remediō, as food and as a remedy medeor, medērī, remedy, cure; iamdudum, since long ago. disserō, disserere, disseruī, dissertum, discuss.  epulor, -ārī, -tus sum, feast; prōdūcō, -ere. –dūxi, prolong, draw out; ab hōrā nōnā, from the 9th hour (i.e about 4.p.m. as the Romans divided time between sunrise and sunset into twelve hours, which thus varied slightly in length from day-to-day); discumbō, -ere,-cubuī, -cubitum. lie down, recline cursitō, -āre, -āvī, run to and fro; famulus, -ī m, servant, slave; lanx, lancis f, large plate or dish. nāvō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, carry out; altīlis, -is f, fattened bird; muraena, ae f (more usually in the later form murēna), moray eel. sūmen, sūminis n, pig’s udder; insuper, in addition, botellus, -ī m, mushroom; suilla carō, pork (literally `meat from a pig’); farciō, farcere, farsī, fartum, stuff Quī…convēnerant, `Those who, invited to the wedding, had assembled there from all directions’ adtulerant is more commonly spelled attulerant (pluperfect of afferō, afferre, attuī, allātum, bring to; comedō, -ēsse, -ēdī, -ēsum/-ēstum, eat up, consume; saturitās, -itātis f, being full, satiety; pōtāsse = pōtāvisse, perfect infinitive from pōtō, -āre, -āvi, -ātum, drink; timidulus, -a, -um, shy little prōnuba, -ae f, older woman who acted as guide and assistant to the bride; adsīdō, -ere, -sēdī, sit beside; parcē, sparingly vorācitās, -ātis f, ravenousness, huge appetite; adliciō, adlicere, adlexī, adlectum (also alliciō), attract.
At summopere cavēbat nē gestus edendī aliēnus esset ā mātrōnārum decōre; nec manū tōtā illa sed summīs digitīs lepidē pulmenta carpēbat.
Pīsō Tuliolam rapere cōnātur Dum convīvae comedunt, pōtant, variīsque sermōnibus et clāmōre triclīnium implent, paulātim advesperāscit, iamque servulī facēs adferunt et accēnsōs lychnōs ad lychnūchōs suspendunt. At quid fit? Ex imprōvisō Tulliolae maritus ex lectō triclīniārī surgit, magnum quiddam ausūrus;  ipsam adprehendit, clāmitantem trahit, mātre frūstrā obnitente, Spectant cēterī, hortantur, plaudunt; nēmō timet nē quid gravius accidat: haec omnia per iocum fīunt. Eā enim cōnsuētūdine Sabīnārum raptūs memoria perpetuō renovābātur.
Incipit Tulliolae dēductiō At brevis iocus ille fuit; nōn diū Pīsō cōnātus est uxōrem rapere, sed, Tuliolā dīmissā, discessit domumque suam redīre coepit. Dum prōcēdit, nucēs et bellāria puerīs comitantibus effūsē iacit. Illum cēterī sunt secūtī. Hinc dēductiō initium cēpit. Hōc nōmine nūptiālis pompa significābātur quā nova nūpta vespere ā patris aedibus in marītī domum dēdūcēbātur. Iam in viā facēs agitābantur, atque inter populī clāmōrēs, `Talassio! Talassio!’ iterantēs, tībiārum sonus audiēbātur. Nūptiālēs facēs taedae vocābantur.
NOTES: summopere, very greatly; caveō, -ēre, cāvī, cautum, take care; gestus, -ūs m, gesture, way of moving the body; mātrōna, -ae f, married woman (applied only to wives who had been married cum manū, i.e. were full members of their husband’s family and under his authority.; decus, decoris n, decorum, virtue lepidē, charmingly; summīs digitīs, with the tips of her fingers; pulmentum. –ī n, piece of food (applied originally to dips and other things eaten with bread); carpō, -ere, carpsī, carptum, pluck, tear off. aduesperāscit, -āscere, aduesperāuit, evening approaches; lychnus, -ī m, lamp; lychnūchus, -ī m lamp-stand, chandelier. The Illustrated Companion to the Latin Dictionary (https://archive.org/stream/illustratedcompa00richuoft#page/398/mode/2up) states that a lychnus was any light suspended from the ceiling whilst the lychnūchus could either stand on the ground or (in the case of the lychnūchus pēnsilis) hang from the ceiling and it carried multiple lamps or candles.The individual lamps supported by the lychnūchus were themselves normally suspended from it rather than resting on a platform. The Illustrated Companion also claims that a candelābrum differed from the lychnūchus because the former carried only one lamp but Smith’s Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, include multiple-lamp holders in the candelābrum category, in line with the word’s modern English meaning. See http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/secondary/smigra*/candelabrum.html ex imprōvīsō, unexpectedly; lectus triclīnaris, dining-room couch magnum quiddam ausūrus, `about to dare a certain great thing’ (i,e about to act very bodly), with future participle from the semi-deponent verb audeō, audēre, ausus sum. adprehendō (apprehend), -ere, -endī, -ēnsum, apprehend, seize hold of; calāmitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, cry out repeatedly. obnītor, obnītī, obnīsus/obnīxus sum, struggle against  cōnsuētūdō, cōnsuētūdinis f, custom; Sabīnārum raptus, `The Rape (=carrying off) of the Sabine Women`. According to Roman legend, Romulus and the first inhabitants of Rome solved the problem of a shortage of women by inviting the Sabines to a sporting even and then seizing their daughters, The ensuing war was halted by the women themselves who ran between the opposing armies carrying their infants and begging that they should not lose either their fathers or their husbands. dēductiō, -iōnis, f leading away, bridal procession cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum, try nux, nucis f, nut; bellāria, -ium n pl, dessert, sweets comitor, comitrarī, comitātus sum, accompany; effūsē, widely, extravagantly  pompa, -ae f, procession fax, facis f, torch; agitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, move about, pursue Tal(l)asio was a traditional cry of congratulations to a bride. The meaning is uncertain but it may have been a name of the god of marriage; iterō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum, repeat; l f, pipe, flute taeda, ae f, a torch made of pieces of pinewood arranged to give the appearance of a pine cone (see illustration) and used only for weddings.