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On other Classics Sites
I keep a list of interesting web pages at http://delicious.com/Velptonius and, since 2007, have regularly uploaded to www.wordchamp.com English glosses for the vocabulary used in Finnish Radio's weekly Latin news bulletins (`Nuntii Latini'). To use the glosses, register with Wordchamp in the normal way then access the Finnish Radio site (www.yleradio1.fi/nuntii) via the `web reader' section in Wordchamp. This will allow you to see pop-up translations of individual words by simply resting the cursor on them; for a fuller explanation see my article at www.circe.be/content/view/134/332/lang,en/ or download the instructions at the bottom of this page. For the flashcards, search on Wordchamp for my personal details (under the username Iohannes) and then click on `flashcards'. The cards present vocabulary from:
Latin was at first the language of Latium, the ancient name of the area around the mouth of the River Tiber on the western coast of Italy.Between the 4th and the 1st. centuries before the birth of Christ the people of Rome conquered Latium, then all Italy and finally of much of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Roman soldiers, traders and settlers spread Latin throughout their empire.
The Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century after Christ but Latin continued to be spoken in many parts of southern Europe. There were already differences in the way the language was spoken in different areas and these different dialects (方言) gradually changed into Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian. Because they developed from Latin spoken by the Romans, these modern languages are known as `Romance languages’ and we also sometimes use the word `Latin’ as an adjective for the peoples and cultures associated with them. Thus Central and South America, where Spanish or Portuguese are spoken, are known as `Latin America.’
The similarities between Latin and the modern Romance languages can easily be seen by comparing the present tense of the verb `love’ in each of them (see the table below). Written French has changed more than written Spanish, Portuguese or Italian andspoken French (shown in phonetic symbols) has changed even more. A Spaniard can understand most simple sentences in Italian (and vice versa) but, unless they have studied French, neither of them will understand a French person speaking. However, all Romance languages are still so close to the original Latin and to each other that learning a little of any one of them makes it easier when you start learning another.
Table 1: The Verb `love’ in the Romance Languages
LATIN SPANISH PORTUGUESE ITALIAN FRENCH ENGLISH AMOAMOAMOAMO AIME /eim/ (I) love AMASAMASAMASAMIAIMES /eim/(You) love (s.)# AMAT AMAAMAAMAAIME /eim/(He/she) loves AMAMUSAMAMOSAMAMOSAMIAMOAIMONS /eimõ/* (We) love AMATISAMÁISAMAISAMATEAIMEZ/eimei/(You) love (pl.) AMANTAMANAMAMAMANOAIMENT /eim/(They) love
NOTES: # There is a special form for the singular in Old English - `(thou) lovest’ * The sign ~ over a vowel means that it is pronounced nasally, with air escaping through the nose as well as through the mouth.
English is not a Romance language but it has borrowed many words directly from Latin (e.g. velocity (< velocitas), altitude (<altitudo)) and others indirectly though French (e.g. measure (<Old Fr. mesure < Lat. mensura), beef (< Fr. boeuf < Lat. bovem, cow)). This means that if you know the background to a Latin passage you may be able to guess what it is about even before you have started Latin lessons.
Although by about 600 A.D, Latin was very different from what people actually spoke, it remained the official language of the Christian church in Europe. After the Reformation (宗教改革), the Protestant churches began to use local, spoken languages but the Catholic Church (天主教教會) used Latin for its most important ceremony, the Mass, until the 1960s and even today the Pope’s most important statements are still translated into it.During the Middle Ages (中世紀) and the early modern period, government records were kept in Latin and scholars and political leaders used it as an international language, in the same way that French was used from the 18th to the early 20th century and that English is used now. The last major international treaty in Latin was signed in 1756 between Denmark and Turkey, whilst in Britain official records of births and deaths were maintained in Latin until 1733 and in Hungary and Croatia Latin remained the official language of parlimentary proceedings until the middle of the 19th century.
Until the 17th century, scientists usually published their results in Latin. They then switched to using the language of their own country, and Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica (1687), which explained his theory of gravitation, was one of the last important scientific books to be written in the old language. However, Latin is still used today by biologists for giving scientific names to different species (e.g. Musca domestica = the house fly) and descriptions of new plant species are also still published in Latin.
Figure 2: Newton’s Laws of Motion from Principia Mathematica
Lex ICorpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum, nisi quatenus illud a viribus impressis cogitur statum suum mutare. [That every object remains in its state of rest or of movement at a constant speed in a straight line except in so far as it is made to change its state by forces applied to it]
Lex IIMutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressæ, & fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. [That acceleration is proportional to the applied motive force and takes place in a straight line in the same direction as the application of that force]
Lex IIIActioni contrariam semper & æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales & in partes contrarias dirigi. [That there is always an opposite and equal reaction to every action: that is, the actions of two objects upon one another are always equal and in opposite directions]
 From Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica [Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy], 3rd. edition, 1726, p.13 and following. This and other extracts are available on-line at http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/newton
Even after modern European languages had taken over its old functions, Latin remained an important part of the school syllabus in Europe until modern times. At the grammar school where I was myself a student in the 1960s, most of us studied Lain until F5 and a few people (including me) studied it also in F6 and 7 and at university. Latin is not now so widely taught in British schools but it is still quite important in Italy and some other European countries. Those who still study Latin normally learn it only as a written language and use it just to read ancient Roman literature. However, nowadays some scholars use Latin to send e-mails to each other and also even talk to each other in it. Examples of Latin e-mails can be read on the website of Finnish radio, which hosts a Latin Internet discussion group. The same site lets you hear and read a Latin news bulletin every week ( http://www.yleradio1.fi/nuntii.).There are readings of passages from ancient Latin and Greek literature at http://www.pyrrha.demon.co.uk/psound3.html. and videos ofpeople speaking Latin at the University of Kentucky at http://www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/videocasts/ Latin has also been used (with German subtitles) in a full-length documentary made for German television and available at http://www.3sat.de/mediathek/mediathek.php?obj=9250. Finally, the Romans in Mel Gibson’s film, The Passion of the Christ, all speak in Latin. The filmmakers tried to make this like the simpler Latin we believe ordinary people spoke at this time. The written Latin which was used by educated people and which we study today was rather more complicated.
Out of about .600, 000 students who took the GCSE (equivalent of the HKCE) in 2004, lessthan 10,000 took Latin. There are now so few specialist Latin teachers working in British schools that the subject will only survive if web-based courses are developed to allow students to study the language by distance-learning.
Further information on the language and its use in Europe is included in the Powerpoint presentation INTRODUCING LATIN downloadable here.
The main difference between Latin and English is that Latin makes very many changes to the endings of words to show their grammatical role within the sentence. English sometimes does the same thing (e.g. he changes into him when it is the object of a verb and do changes into did when it becomes past tense). However, English (like Chinese) mainly relies just on word order and on adding additional words.
As an example of the Latin method, look at the following sentence:
Marce,Paulus militispecuniamPetroin templo dedit Mark,Paulsoldier’smoneyto-Peter in templegave
i.eMark, Paul gave the soldier’s money to Peter in the temple.
In the dictionary, the Latin for the English words would be listed like this:
Mark – Marcus,soldier – milesPeter – Petrusgive– do
Paul – Paulus money – pecuniatemple – templum
In the sentence, only Paulus (the subject of the sentence) keeps its dictionary form. The other words change in different ways:
-Marcus becomes Marce, to show he is the person being talked to.
-We have militis instead of miles to show the soldier owns the money (English adds `sin the same way – soldier’s)
-An m is added to pecunia as the word is the direct object of the verb.
-The –o ending for Petro marks the word as the indirect object of the verb
-The –o of templo is needed as the word is used with the preposition in to show where the action happened.
-Finally, the verb form dedit shows both the tense (past) and also that the subject is one person or thing not taking part in the conversation.The form do in our list actually means `I give’. Among many other forms of the same verb are dedimus (`We gave’), datur (`is given’) and dabimini (`you (plural) will be given’).
This system seems very complicated at first but you need only learn the different endings a few at a time and it will become easier. Because the endings of words give so much information, one word in Latin often does the job of two or more in English. For example, Crucio (one of the Unforgivable Curses in the Harry Potter books) means `I torture!’The Latin system also gives a speaker or writer freedom to change the order of words to emphasise a particular part of the sentence or to fit the rhythm of a poem.For example, although Latin normally has the word order subject-object-verb (e.g. Marcus Petrum videt – Mark sees Peter), we could also say Petrum Marcus videt if we are especially interested in the fact that it was Peter, not somebody else, that Mark saw. An example from poetry is the opening lines from a famous poem by the Roman writer Horace. He is pretending to be speaking to a former (real or imaginary) girl-friend.
Quis multa gracilis tepuerinrosa What many slender you youth amongrose Perfususliquidis urget odoribus Soakedliquidcourts perfumes-in
The endings of the words tell us that puer is the subject of the sentence and goes together with the adjectives quis and gracilis and the participle perfusus.Similarly, we know that te is the object of the verb and that multa descibes rosa. So the English meaning is: `What slender youth, soaked in liquid perfumes, courts you (向您求愛) among many a rose.’
In the modern Romance languages, the different endings on nouns have disappeared.However, especially in Spanish and Italian, the verb endings have often been kept with only small changes, as we saw for the present tense in Table 1. Until recently, people learning Latin were expected to concentrate first on quickly learning all the many different endings which nouns, adjectives and verbs can have. However, schools still teaching Latin nowadays concentrate first on reading and building up vocabulary, and only introduce grammatical rules when they are needed. The central part of the Cambridge Latin Course, which will be used in Europe Club lessons, is a series of simple stories about people living in ancient Rome. You can see the Cambridge material at http://www.cambridgescp.com/latin/clc/onlineA/clc_onlineA_b1.php
Cambridge Latin Course Website
Pronunciation of Latin
We cannot be completely sure how Latin originally sounded but we know roughly what it was like because we have descriptions ofRoman speech by ancient authors and we can also compare how the sounds developed in the modern Romance languages. Today scholars usually read (or speak) Latin using what we think were the original sounds. However, the Catholic Church (天主教教會) still uses a pronunciation close to that of modern Italian and you will often hear this in recordings of church music or of medieval Latin; there is an example (the Credo sung clearly and with the Latin text displayed phrase by phrase) here and a translation is available here. You can hear one of the world’s leading teachers of Latin, Fr Reginald Foster, using this pronunciation at http://br.youtube. com/watch? v=_fRW1HUkG3c&feature=related In the table below, the church pronunciation has been given in square brackets after the original sound.
The main vowels each had a short and a long sound. In Latin as the Romans wrote it, and as it is usually printed today, the vowel is written the same way whether it is pronounced short or long. However, in texts written for beginners long vowels are often marked by a straight line over the top.
Ā (long)as in fatherA (short)roughly as in hat
Ē (long)roughly as in dayE (short)as in bed
Ī (long) as in seeI (short)as in sit
(when followed by another consonant, I normally had the sound /j/ as in yard. In medieval (中世紀的)documents this sound is often written as J, but there was no J in the original Latin alphabet))
Ō (long)as in goO (short)asin got
Ū (long)like `oo' in foolU (short) as in full
AElike `ie' in die[Church pronunciation is. like the vowel sound in day or the onme in bed. This pronunciation is also used by thereaders of Latin news on Finnish Radio (http://www.yleradio1.fi/nuntii.), even though they follow the original pronunciation for most other Latin sounds)
OElike `oi' in oil
AUlike `au' in out
EIlike `ay' in day (but often these two letters were pronounced as separate vowels - /e-i:/ )
These were always pronounced as written, so a double consonant was pronounced as two separate sounds or as a longer sound than that represented by a single consonant. So ille (that) was pronounced il-le
Calways like /k/ in cake or king [in church pronunciation, C has the sound of `ch' inchurch] when it comes before I or E]
Galways like /g/ in good or girl[in church pronunciation G has the sound of `g' in gentlewhenit comes before I or E] Mwhen reading Latin today, we nearly always pronounce this like English /m/. However, the Romans themselves, at least in poetry, often did not pronounce a final M fully. Instead the vowel before it was nasalised, that is, air passed out through the speaker’s nose as well as his month. There are many vowels of this kind in modern French.
Talways like /t/ in tin [in church pronunciation, T has the sound /ts/ (as in hats) when it is followed by I or E]
Vlike /w/ in we [in church pronunciation, V has the sound /v/ as in very]
(in the Romans’ own alphabet V was just another shape for U and both letters could represent either the vowel sound /v/ or the consonant /w/. However, when Latin is printed today, only U is normally used for the vowel sound and only V for the consonant. An exception is in the letter combination QU, where we write U but use the pronunciation /kw/ - this, of course, is normally the way QU is pronounced in English – e.g. queen, question etc.).
Latin words were never stressed on their final syllable, so in a word of two syllables the stress was always on the first (this is what usually – but not always- happens with English two-syllable words).
- When a word had three or more syllables, the stress was either on the second-to-last or on the third syllable from the end:
- If the vowel in the second-to-last syllable was long OR if it was followed by two or more consonants, the second-last-syllable was stressed.
- If the vowel in the second-last syllable was short and was not followed by two consonants, the stress was placed on the third syllable from the end.
In using these rules, you need to remember that:
An l or r following another consonant was regarded as combining with that consonant to form a single sound. Thus combinations like dr, cl etc.did NOT make a short vowel in front able to take the stress.
The consonant x was really two sounds /ks/, so a short vowel in front COULD take the stress
The letter h was ignored in counting the number of consonants
Some examples of how this system works are given below. The stressed vowel is shown italicised and in red:
āmō (I love) Two-syllable word, stress on first syllable
āmās (You (sing.) love) Two-syllable word, stress on first syllable
āmāmus (We love) Three-syllable word, stress on second syllable from the end as it has a long vowel
contendunt (They struggle) Three-syllable word, stress on second syllable from the end as the vowel, although short, is followed by two consonants
extraxi (I dragged out) Three-syllable word, stress on second syllable from the end as the short vowel is followed by x, which counts as two consonants
corrigunt (They correct) Three syllable word, stress on third syllable from the end as the second vowel from the end isshort and there is only one consonant after it. exedra Three syllable word, stress on third syllable from the end as the second vowel from the end is short and is followed by dr, which counts as only one consonant
dominus (lord) Three syllable word, stress on third syllable from the end as the second vowel from the end isshort and there is only one consonant after it.
Pronunciation of Poetry
Before the medieval period (中世紀), Latin poetry did not depend on stress patterns (as English poetry does) but on the arrangement of long and short syllables. A syllable was regarded as long if it was one which could take the stress in the second position from the end, i.e. if it contained:
EITHERa long vowel
OR a short vowel followed by xOR a short vowel followed by two consonants (if h was not one of the consonants and if the second one was not l or r)
In the last-but-one syllable of words with more than two syllables, a long syllable was thus also a stressed one, but in other positions short syllables could be stressed.
When a word ending with a vowel (or with vowel- plus- m) came before a word beginning with a vowel, the final vowel was normally not pronounced. Thus multum ille et was pronounced mult’ ill’ et . The reason for treating vowel-plus- m in the same way as a simple vowel was probably that the m in such a position did not have a separate sound of its own unless it was followed by another consonant (see the CONSONANTS section above).
Now listen to a recording of lines by the Roman poet Virgil (W:SubjectsEnglishEurope ClubAeneid Reading at http://www.rhapsodes.fll.vt.edu/aeneid1.htm - Real Player is needed). This is the start of the Aeneid, the story of Aeneas, who was believed to have been the ancestor of the first kings of Rome and also of the Roman Emperor Augustus, for whom Virgil wrote.According to the story, Aeneas fled from Troy when it was captured by the Greeks and reached Italy, despite attempts by Juno, the queen of the gods, to stop him. The recording includes 49 lines and these can all be read in the file Aeneid Extract in the Europe Club directory or on the website.In the seven lines given here, the gaps in the Latin are for the translation to be shown for each separate word. After listening once or twice you can try using the pause button to repeat the lines after the speaker.
Arma virumque canō, Trōiae quī prīmus abōrīs Arms man-alsosing-ITroy’swho firstfrom shores Ītaliam, fātōprofugus, Lāvīniaque vēnit Italyby-fate refugee Lavinian-also came-he lītora, multum ille etterrīsiactātuset altō coastsmuchheboth on-land troubled and at-sea vīsuperum saevae memorem Iūnōnis obīram; by-forceof-godsof-cruel memorableJuno’sbecause-of anger multa quoque etbellōpassus, dum condereturbem, muchalsoand in-war suffered untilfound-could-he city īnferretquedeōs Latiō,genus undeLatīnum, carrycould-he-also godsto-Latium racefrom-whom Latin Albānīque patrēs, atque altae moenia Rōmae. Alban-also fathersandhigh wallsRome’s
Virgil with the Muses
(In more idiomatic English: I sing of war and of the man who, exiled by fate, first came from Troy’s shores to Italy and the Lavinian coasts. He was troubled much on land and at sea through the violence of the gods because of the memorable anger of cruel Juno. He also suffered much in war until he could found a city and bring his own gods into Latium. From him came the Latin race, the Alban fathers and the walls of towering Rome.) In the medieval period (中世紀), most Latin poetry did not follow this system but instead used a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables to give the rhythm, just as in modern English poetry.Medieval Latin poems also often had rhyming words at the end of the lines. Here is the first verse of`Gaudeamus Igitur’, a famous student song, which was probably written after the end of the Middle Ages but which follows the medieval system. It is normally sung to a tune written down in 1781 and later included by Brahms in his `Academic Festival Overture’.
Gaudeamusigitur let-us-be-happytherefore Iuvenes dumsumus youngwhilewe-are Gaudeamus igitur Iuvenes dum sumus Post iucundam iuventutem after pleasant youth Post molestam senectutem after miserable old age Nos habebithumus. uswill- haveearth Nos habebit humus.
Latin poetry is still being written and there is now a free Internet journal VATES, which publishes new poems together with English translations and articles in English on modern Latin poetry.
Latinitas Viva (Living Latin)
The movement to revive the use of Latin as a means of real communication, at least amongst scholars, arouses considerable passion among both advocates and opponents: the former argue that no language can be properly appreciated if it is not actually used, whilst the latter think it is a frivolous diversion frrom the real task of studying ancient and medieval texts. At the very least, however, trying to listen to and speak the language can make the task of learning it more enjoyable for most people.
In addition to sites mentioned above, there are many other examples of spoken Latin available on the web. There are clips of well-known teachers conducting oral lessons on the In conclavi scholare sub-page.
In Conveniamus ad Cauponam (Let's meet at the Cafe), Latin students act out a meeting after many years between a sister and her two brothers:
Marcus: Iūlia, soror mea!Julia, my sister! Iulia: Marce, mē delectat tē vidēre! Tenēpocillum theae Marcus, I'm delighted to see you! Have a cup of tea Marcus: Grātiās tibi agō. Thankyou. Quīnte! Multōs annōs nōn loquimur! Quintus! We haven't talked for many years! Quōmodo tē habēs, frāter mī? How are you, my brother? Quintus: Bene mēhabeō quia hodie bracchiō meō nōn labōrō. I'm fine, because I'm not having trouble with my arm today. Iulia: Adhūcīne aliquandō dolet? Does it still sometimes hurt? Quintus: Dolet. Medicus stultus fuit. It does. The doctor was a fool. Marcus: Nōn tam stultus fuit quam Syra quae pūtāvit tēNot so foolish as Syra who thought you'd died! mortuumfuisse. Iulia; Nōn stulta fuit. Illam amābam! Illa mē canere docuit. She wasn't foolish. I loved her! She taught me to sing. Quintus: Adhucīne in musicam incumbis? Are you still involved in music? Iulia: Volō esse cantātrix. I want to be a singer. Marcus: Potesne melius nunc canere? An adhūc tam male Can you sing better now?Or do you still sing as badly? canis? Iulia: Nunc parva nōn sum! I'm not small now! Quintus: Sedēte, puerī! Sit down, children! Marcus: Illa hoc incēpit! She started it! Quintus: Nōlī esse puer imbecillus. Don't be a silly boy. Iulia: Quīnte, quid agis? Quintus, what do you do? Quintus: Veterinārius sum. Et tū, Marce? I'm a vet. And you, Marcus? Iulia: Adhūcine mendāx es? Are you still a liar? Marcus: Nōn, senātor sum. No, I'm a senator. [Alii rident ] [The others laugh] Marcus: Cur ridētis? Why are you laughing? Quintus: Nihil rēfert It doesn't matter. Iulia: Quid dē bellō Graecō pūtās? What do you think about the Greek war? Marcus: Egēmus plus militēs. We need more troops. Quintus: Militēs enim Graeci fortēs et multī sunt. Quōmodo As the Greek soldiers are brave and thereare many māter et pater sē habent? are many of them. How are mother and father? Iulia: Sunt tristēs, quia Medus mortuus est. They're sad, because Medus has died. Quintus: Prōh dolor! Quōmodo mortuus est? Oh what a pity! How did he die? Marcus: Quia cottīdiē male cantābat? Because he was singing badly every day? Iulia: Tacē! Shut up! Marcus: Quid? Servus malus fuit. What? He was a bad slave. Quintus: Vērum est. Pecūniam patris cēpit. It's true. he took father's money. Iulia: Bōs eum interfēcit. A bull killed him. [Marcus ridet] [Marcus laughs] Quintus: Eheu! Oh dear! Marcus: Fēlix sum. Medus servus malus est. Ignosce...fuit. I'm happy. Medus is a bad slave. Sorry ... was Iulia: Māter bene est. Mother's fine. Marcus: Aliquandōne de mē loquitur? Does she sometimes talk about me? Iulia: Loquitur...cottīdiē... She does...every day... Marcus: Gaudeō[pausa].Debeō exīre I'm glad. [pause] I have to go. Quintus: Opus est labōrāre. Need to work. Iulia: Valēte, frātrēs meī. Goodbye, my brothers. .
For other examples of Latin on the web, see the links tagged `video' or `audio' on http://delicious.com/Velptonius. There is also a good selection at http://www.latinitatis.com/latinitas/menu_gb.htm.Those wanting to hear unscripted speech can listen to Latinists in conversation in the Locutorium (`Speaking Room') at www.schola.ning.com. The Scriptorium (`Writing Room') on the same site allows people to type messages to each other in the same way as in other internet chatrooms. A similar facility (writing but not speaking) is provided on an older site maintained by the Circulus Latinus Panormitanus in Sicily. Email correspondence in Latin can be conducted using the list of addresses on the Sicilian site or the forum hosted by Finnish Radio, but the best-known group for this activity is the Grex Latine Loquentium (`Latin Speakers' Association') with about 200 members at the beginning of 2010. It is accepted in these fora that everyone will make errors, but you should not attempt to join in either spoken or written exchanges unless you are able and willing to observe the `Latin only' rule!
Teaching aids for Latin via Ovid
These Powerpoints are being produced for use with the reading passages in Norma Goldman and Jacob E. Nyenhuis's introductory Latin course, based on simplified versions of some of the Greek myths in the Roman poet Ovid's Metamorphoses. They present a short summary of each passage, consisting mostly of extracted sentences and illustrated with Greek vase paintings and work by major European artists from the Renaissance onwards. Many more illustrations, with the complete text of Metamorphoses can be found on the site of the Goethe-Gymnasium Emmingden by clicking on `Ovidius Naso - Edition' in the left-hand margin of their home page:
The story of how Callisto was seduced by Jupiter and then suffered vengeance at the hands of Juno, queen of the gods before Jupiter turned her into a constellation. (Chapters IX & X). See below for a download of Ovid's full original text.
The story of the ill-fated lovers Pyramus and Thisbe, neighbours in ancient Babylon, whose story has strong resemblances to that of Romeo and Juliet. (Chapters XV & XVI)
These files are among materials stored on the Baptist Lui Ming Choi Secondary School Intranet at S:/Subjects/English/EUROPE CLUB/LATIN. BLMCSS staff and students can access the whole list themselves but others wanting full details should contact me at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Instructions for using Wordchamp help in reading Finnish Radio's Nuntii Latini, for accessing my flashcards on the Wordhamp site and for using the Cambridge Latin Course's own dictionary or ordering the digital version of the Oxford Pocket Latin dictionary on the Cambridge site
This is a the illustrated text of lines 401 to 530 Book II of Ovid's Metamorphoses, telling the story of the nymph Callisto who was seduced by Jupiter and then suffered Juno's vengeance before finally becoming a constellation in the night sky. The text can be read even by near-beginners by pasting it into the webreader on Wordchamp and using the pop-up glosses for each word. The entire text of Metamorphoses, with over 2000 illustrations from different periods of European art, can be found on the site of the Goethe-Gymnasium Emmendingen by clicking on `Ovidius Naso - Edition' in the left-hand margin. Simplified versions of Callisto's and other stories form the reading passages in the introductory textbook Latin via Ovid.
A selection of Latin passages starting with Caesar's description of his invasion of Britain in 55 B.C. and including a letter and inscription from the Roman occupation of Britain, an account of the Battle of Hastings, the Declaration of Arbroath (1320), a 17th century description of a journey across the Himalayayas, Newton's Laws of Motion, part of Karl Marx's matriculation essay and an eye-witness account of fighting in Italy towards the end of WWII.
A Powerpoint introducing an exhibition of art from the ruins of Stabiae, an area of luxury villas for Rome's rich and famous, which was burieded when Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. destroying also the better-known sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
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